|Systems of government
Countries in which constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g.
Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. transitional governments, unclear political situations or no government)
A presidential system is a
system of government where a
head of government leads an
executive branch that is separate from the
legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the
head of state, which is called
In presidential countries, the executive is
elected and is not
responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances
dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through
The title "
president" has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the
President of the Continental Congress in the
early United States, prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government.
A presidential system contrasts with a
parliamentary system, where the head of government is elected to power through the
legislative. There is also a hybrid system called
Countries that feature a presidential or semi-presidential system of government are not the exclusive users of the title of president. Heads of state of
parliamentary republics, largely ceremonial in most cases, are called presidents.
Dictators or leaders of
one-party states, popularly elected or not, are also often called presidents.
Presidentialism is the dominant form of government in the continental
Americas, with 19 of its 23 sovereign states being presidential republics. It is also prevalent in
Central and southern
West Africa and in