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The pre-Columbian history of the territory now comprising contemporary
Human presence in the Mexican region was once thought to date back 40,000 years based upon what were believed to be ancient human footprints discovered in the Valley of Mexico, but after further investigation using
Between 1800 and 300 BC, complex cultures began to form. Many matured into advanced
These civilizations are credited with many inventions and advancements including pyramid-temples, mathematics,
Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls all over northern Mexico (especially in the state of
In fact, many of the later Mexican-based civilizations would carefully build their cities and ceremonial centers according to specific astronomical events. Astronomy and the notion of human observation of celestial events would become central factors in the development of religious systems, writing systems, fine arts, and architecture.
Prehistoric Mexican astronomers began a tradition of precise observing, recording, and commemorating astronomical events that later become a hallmark of Mexican civilized achievements.
At some different points in time, three Mexican cities (