Portugal

Portuguese Republic
República Portuguesa (Portuguese)
Anthem: "A Portuguesa"
Location of  Portugal  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)
Location of  Portugal  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Capital
and largest city
Lisbon
38°46′N 9°9′W / 38°46′N 9°9′W / 38.767; -9.150
Official languagesPortuguese
Recognised regional languagesMirandese[a]
Ethnic groups (2011)
Religion (2011)
DemonymPortuguese
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic[1]
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
Eduardo Ferro Rodrigues
António Costa
LegislatureAssembly of the Republic
Formation
868
1095
24 June 1128
• Kingdom
26 July 1139
5 October 1143
23 May 1179
1 December 1640
5 October 1910
25 April 1974
25 April 1976[b]
1 January 1986
Area
• Total
92,212 km2 (35,603 sq mi)[2] (109th)
• Water (%)
0.5
Population
• 2017 estimate
10,291,027[3] (83rd)
• 2011 census
10,562,178[4]
• Density
111/km2 (287.5/sq mi) (97th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$328.252 billion[5]
• Per capita
$31,965[5]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$279.771 billion[5]
• Per capita
$27,186[5]
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 33.5[6]
medium
HDI (2015)Increase 0.843[7]
very high · 41st
CurrencyEuro[c] () (EUR)
Time zoneWET (UTC)
AZOT (UTC−1)
• Summer (DST)
WEST (UTC+1)
AZOST (UTC)
Note: Mainland Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST, the Azores use AZOT/AZOST
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Drives on theright
Calling code+351
ISO 3166 codePT
Internet TLD.pt
  1. ^ Mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality of Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro),[8] awarding it an official right-of-use.[9] Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
  2. ^ Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976 with several subsequent minor revisions, between 1982 and 2005.
  3. ^ Before 2002, the escudo.

Portugal (Portuguese: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 1] is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The capital and largest city is Lisbon, other major cities are Porto, Braga, Aveiro, Faro and Coimbra.

Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The Pre-Celts, Celts, Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Despite attempts at independence since its foundation as a county in 868,[10] only after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128, where Portuguese forces led by Afonso Henriques defeated forces led by his mother, Theresa of Portugal, the County of Portugal affirmed its sovereignty and Afonso Henriques styled himself Prince of Portugal. He would later be proclaimed King of Portugal at the Battle of Ourique in 1139 and was recognised as such by neighbouring kingdoms in 1143.[11]

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers.[12][13][14] During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497–98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500). During this time, Portugal monopolized the spice trade, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822), left Portugal crippled from war and diminished in its world power.[15]

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire.[16] Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of 300 million Portuguese speakers, and many Portuguese-based creoles. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

Portugal is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards,[17][18][19] being the 20th most advanced country in terms of social progress[20] and the 25th most prosperous one.[21] It also is the 4th most peaceful country in the world[22] and is one of the fifteen most sustainable states,[23] maintained under a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government.[24][25][26][27][28] Additionally, the country is ranked highly in terms of press freedom (14th), moral freedom (3rd), LGBTI rights (7th in Europe),[29] ease of doing business (29th)[30] and road network (3rd).[31][32]

Etymology

The word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale.[33] Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess - in Scotland she is known as Beira - and also the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River (present-day Vila Nova de Gaia) which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal. At the time the land of a specific people was frequently named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the -gal in Portugal and Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is also a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm very old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port. Some French scholars believe it may have come from 'Portus Gallus',[34] the port of the Gauls or Celts.

Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, and in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale (Port of Cale) incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta (modern day Braga, Portugal). During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale. The name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, and by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugale, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was already referred to as Portugal.

Other Languages
Acèh: Portugéh
Адыгэбзэ: Португалэ
адыгабзэ: Португалие
Afrikaans: Portugal
Alemannisch: Portugal
አማርኛ: ፖርቱጋል
Ænglisc: Portugal
العربية: البرتغال
aragonés: Portugal
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܦܘܪܛܘܓܠ
arpetan: Portugal
asturianu: Portugal
Avañe'ẽ: Peroretã
Aymar aru: Purtuwal
azərbaycanca: Portuqaliya
تۆرکجه: پورتوقال
বাংলা: পর্তুগাল
Bân-lâm-gú: Phû-tô-gâ
башҡортса: Португалия
беларуская: Партугалія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Партугалія
भोजपुरी: पुर्तगाल
Bikol Central: Portugal
Bislama: Portugal
български: Португалия
Boarisch: Portugal
བོད་ཡིག: པོ་ཅུ་གྷལ།
bosanski: Portugal
brezhoneg: Portugal
буряад: Португал
català: Portugal
Чӑвашла: Португали
Cebuano: Portugal
čeština: Portugalsko
Chamoru: Portugal
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Portugal
chiShona: Portugal
chiTumbuka: Portugal
corsu: Portugallu
Cymraeg: Portiwgal
dansk: Portugal
davvisámegiella: Portugal
Deutsch: Portugal
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޕޯޗުގަލް
dolnoserbski: Portugalska
eesti: Portugal
Ελληνικά: Πορτογαλία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Purtugàl
español: Portugal
Esperanto: Portugalio
estremeñu: Portugal
euskara: Portugal
eʋegbe: Portugal
فارسی: پرتغال
Fiji Hindi: Portugal
føroyskt: Portugal
français: Portugal
Frysk: Portegal
Fulfulde: Portokeesi
furlan: Portugal
Gagauz: Portugaliya
Gàidhlig: A' Phortagail
galego: Portugal
ગુજરાતી: પોર્ટુગલ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: पोर्तुगाल
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Phù-thò-ngà
한국어: 포르투갈
Hausa: Portugal
Hawaiʻi: Potugala
Հայերեն: Պորտուգալիա
हिन्दी: पुर्तगाल
hornjoserbsce: Portugalska
hrvatski: Portugal
Igbo: Portugal
Ilokano: Portugal
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পর্তুগাল
Bahasa Indonesia: Portugal
interlingua: Portugal
Interlingue: Portugal
isiZulu: IPhothugali
íslenska: Portúgal
italiano: Portogallo
עברית: פורטוגל
Basa Jawa: Portugal
kalaallisut: Portugal
Kapampangan: Portugal
къарачай-малкъар: Португалия
ქართული: პორტუგალია
kaszëbsczi: Pòrtugalskô
қазақша: Португалия
kernowek: Portyngal
Kinyarwanda: Porutigali
Kirundi: Portugal
Kiswahili: Ureno
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pòtigal
kurdî: Portûgal
Кыргызча: Португалия
Ladino: Portugal
лакку: Португал
لۊری شومالی: پورتغال
latgaļu: Portugaleja
Latina: Portugallia
latviešu: Portugāle
Lëtzebuergesch: Portugal
lietuvių: Portugalija
Ligure: Pòrtogallo
Limburgs: Portugal
lingála: Pulutugal
Livvinkarjala: Portugalii
la .lojban.: potygu'e
magyar: Portugália
मैथिली: पोर्चुगल
македонски: Португалија
Malagasy: Pôrtogaly
മലയാളം: പോർച്ചുഗൽ
Malti: Portugall
Māori: Potukara
მარგალური: პორტუგალია
مازِرونی: پرتغال
Bahasa Melayu: Portugal
Baso Minangkabau: Portugis
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Buò-dò̤-ngà
Mirandés: Pertual
мокшень: Португалия
монгол: Португали
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပေါ်တူဂီနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Portsiugar
Nederlands: Portugal
Nedersaksies: Portugal
नेपाली: पोर्चुगल
नेपाल भाषा: पोर्चुगल
日本語: ポルトガル
Napulitano: Purtuallo
нохчийн: Португали
Nordfriisk: Portugal
Norfuk / Pitkern: Porchugal
norsk: Portugal
norsk nynorsk: Portugal
Nouormand: Portugâ
Novial: Portugal
occitan: Portugal
олык марий: Португалий
Oromoo: Poorchugaal
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Portugaliya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪੁਰਤਗਾਲ
Pangasinan: Portugal
پنجابی: پرتگال
Papiamentu: Portugal
پښتو: پرتگال
Patois: Puotigal
Перем Коми: Португал
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ព័រទុយហ្គាល់
Picard: Portugal
Piemontèis: Portugal
Tok Pisin: Potugal
Plattdüütsch: Portugal
polski: Portugalia
Ποντιακά: Πορτογαλία
português: Portugal
Qaraqalpaqsha: Portugaliya
qırımtatarca: Portugaliya
reo tahiti: Pōtītī
română: Portugalia
Romani: Portugaliya
rumantsch: Portugal
Runa Simi: Purtugal
русиньскый: Портуґалія
русский: Португалия
саха тыла: Португалия
Gagana Samoa: Potukale
संस्कृतम्: पुर्तगाल
sardu: Portogallo
Scots: Portugal
Seeltersk: Portugal
Sesotho: Portugal
Sesotho sa Leboa: Portugal
shqip: Portugalia
sicilianu: Portugallu
සිංහල: පෘතුගාලය
Simple English: Portugal
سنڌي: پرتگال
SiSwati: IPhuthukezi
slovenčina: Portugalsko
slovenščina: Portugalska
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Портогалїꙗ
ślůnski: Portugalijo
Soomaaliga: Burtuqaal
کوردی: پورتوگال
Sranantongo: Portugesokondre
српски / srpski: Португалија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Portugal
Basa Sunda: Portugal
suomi: Portugali
svenska: Portugal
Tagalog: Portugal
Taqbaylit: Portugal
tarandíne: Purtugalle
татарча/tatarça: Португалия
తెలుగు: పోర్చుగల్
tetun: Portugál
тоҷикӣ: Португалия
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏉᏥᎦᎳ
Tshivenda: Portugal
Türkçe: Portekiz
Türkmençe: Portugaliýa
удмурт: Португалия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Portugis
українська: Португалія
اردو: پرتگال
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پورتۇگالىيە
vèneto: Portogało
vepsän kel’: Portugalii
Tiếng Việt: Bồ Đào Nha
Volapük: Portugän
Võro: Portugal
walon: Portugal
文言: 葡萄牙
West-Vlams: Portugal
Winaray: Portugal
Wolof: Portugaal
吴语: 葡萄牙
Xitsonga: Phochugali
ייִדיש: פארטוגאל
Yorùbá: Pọ́rtúgàl
粵語: 葡萄牙
Zazaki: Portekiz
Zeêuws: Portuhal
žemaitėška: Puortogalėjė
中文: 葡萄牙
डोटेली: पोर्चुगल
ГӀалгӀай: Португали
Kabɩyɛ: Pɔritigaalɩ
Lingua Franca Nova: Portugal