The Technology Portal
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the sum of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems (e. g. machines) applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.
The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.
Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.
The Manhattan Project
was a research and development program by the United States with the United Kingdom and Canada that produced the first atomic bomb
during World War II
. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves
of the US Army Corps of Engineers
. The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District
; "Manhattan" gradually superseded the official codename, "Development of Substitute Materials
", for the entire project. Along the way, the Manhattan Project absorbed its earlier British counterpart, Tube Alloys
. Reactors were constructed at Hanford, Washington
, in which uranium
was irradiated and transmuted
into plutonium. The plutonium was then chemically separated from the uranium. The gun-type design proved impractical to use with plutonium so a more complex implosion-type weapon was developed in a concerted design and construction effort at the project's weapons research and design laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico
. The first nuclear device ever detonated was an implosion-type bomb at the Trinity test
, conducted at New Mexico's Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range
on 16 July 1945. Little Boy
, a gun-type weapon, and the implosion-type Fat Man
were used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
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