The Technology Portal
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems (e. g. machines) applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.
The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.
Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.
/), previously Mac OS X
, is a series of Unix
-based graphical interface operating systems
developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc.
It is designed to run exclusively on Mac
computers, having been pre-loaded on all Macs since 2002. It was the successor to Mac OS 9
, released in 1999, the final release of the "classic" Mac OS
, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. The first version released was Mac OS X Server 1.0
in 1999, and a desktop version, Mac OS X v10.0
"Cheetah" followed on March 24, 2001. Releases of OS X are named after big cats
: for example, OS X v10.8 is referred to as "Mountain Lion
". OS X, whose X
is the Roman numeral for 10
and is a prominent part of its brand identity
, is built on technologies developed at NeXT
between the second half of the 1980s and Apple's purchase of the company in late 1996. The 'X' is also used to emphasize the relatedness between OS X and UNIX. Versions 10.5
"Leopard" running on Intel
"Snow Leopard", and 10.8
"Mountain Lion" have obtained UNIX 03
, which runs on the iPhone
, iPod Touch
, and the 2nd and 3rd generation Apple TV
, shares the Darwin
core and many frameworks with OS X. An unnamed variant of v10.4
powered the first generation Apple TV.
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Did you know...
Albert Stanley, 1st Baron Ashfield
(1874–1948) was managing director, then chairman of the Underground Electric Railways Company of London
(UERL) from 1910 to 1933 and chairman of the London Passenger Transport Board
(LPTB) from 1933 to 1947. At a young age, he held senior positions in the developing tramway systems of Detroit and New Jersey. In 1907, his management skills led to his recruitment by the UERL, which was struggling through a financial crisis. He quickly integrated the company's management and used advertising and public relations to improve profits. As managing director of the UERL from 1910, he led the take-over of competing underground railway companies and bus and tram operations to form an integrated transport operation known as the Combine. He was Member of Parliament
from December 1916
to January 1920
and was President of the Board of Trade
between December 1916
and May 1919
. He returned to the UERL and then chaired it and its successor the LPTB during the organisation's greatest period of expansion between the two World Wars, making it a world-respected organisation considered an exemplar of the best form of public administration.
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