The Society Portal
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spacial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members. In the social sciences, a larger society often exhibits stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups.
Societies construct patterns of behavior by deeming certain actions or speech as acceptable or unacceptable. These patterns of behavior within a given society are known as societal norms. Societies, and their norms, undergo gradual and perpetual changes.
Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would otherwise be difficult on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term used extensively within criminology.
More broadly, and especially within structuralist thought, a society may be illustrated as an economic, social, industrial or cultural infrastructure, made up of, yet distinct from, a varied collection of individuals. In this regard society can mean the objective relationships people have with the material world and with other people, rather than "other people" beyond the individual and their familiar social environment.
A Punch cartoon from 17 June 1876 showing Russia preparing to let slip "the dogs of war", its imminent engagement in the growing conflict between Slavic states in the Balkans and Turkey, while policeman John Bull (representing Britain) warns Russia to take care. The Slavic states of Serbia and Montenegro would declare war on Turkey at the end of June, and Russia formally joined the war in April 1877.
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Anniversaries this month
Chrysippus of Soli
: Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς
, [Chrysippos ho Soleus
] error: : text has italic markup (help)
; c. 279 BC – c. 206 BC) was a Greek Stoic philosopher
. He was a native of Soli, Cilicia
, but moved to Athens
as a young man, where he became a pupil of Cleanthes
in the Stoic school. When Cleanthes died, around 230 BC, Chrysippus became the third head of the school. A prolific writer, Chrysippus expanded the fundamental doctrines of Zeno of Citium
, the founder of the school, which earned him the title of Second Founder of Stoicism. Chrysippus excelled in logic
, the theory of knowledge
. He created an original system of propositional logic
in order to better understand the workings of the universe and role of humanity within it. He adhered to a deterministic
view of fate
, but nevertheless sought a role for personal freedom in thought and action. Ethics, he taught, depended on understanding the nature of the universe, and he taught a therapy of extirpating the unruly passions
which depress and crush the soul. He initiated the success of Stoicism as one of the most influential philosophical movements for centuries in the Greek
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