The History Portal
History is the discovery, collection, organization, analysis, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean a continuous, typically chronological record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution. Scholars who write about history are called
historians. It is a field of
knowledge which uses a
narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to objectively investigate the patterns of cause and effect that determine events. Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. The stories common to a particular
culture but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding
King Arthur) are usually classified as
cultural heritage rather than as the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history. Events of the past prior to written record are considered
Amongst scholars, fifth century BC
Herodotus is considered to be the "father of history"; the methods of Herodotus along with his contemporary
Thucydides form the foundations for the modern study of history. Their influence (along with other historical traditions in other parts of their world) has spawned many different interpretations of the nature of history which has developed over the centuries and are continuing to change. The modern study of history has many different fields, including those that focus on certain regions and those that focus on certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. Often, history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.
Treaty of Devol
: συνθήκη της Δεαβόλεως
) was an agreement made in 1108 between
Alexios I Komnenos
, in the wake of the
. It is named after the Byzantine fortress of
). Although the treaty was not immediately enforced, it was intended to make the
Principality of Antioch
state of the
At the beginning of the
Crusader armies assembled at
Constantinople and promised to return to the Byzantine Empire any land they might conquer. However, Bohemond, the son of Alexios' former enemy
Robert Guiscard, claimed the
Principality of Antioch for himself. Alexios did not recognize the legitimacy of the Principality, and Bohemond went to Europe looking for reinforcements. He launched into open warfare against Alexios, but he was soon forced to surrender and negotiate with Alexios at the imperial camp at Diabolis (Devol), where the Treaty was signed.
Under the terms of the Treaty, Bohemond agreed to become a vassal of the Emperor and to defend the Empire whenever needed. He also accepted the appointment of a
Greek Patriarch. In return, he was given the titles of
doux (duke) of Antioch, and he was guaranteed the right to pass on to his heirs the
County of Edessa. Following this, Bohemond retreated to
Apulia and died there. His nephew,
Tancred, who was regent in Antioch, refused to accept the terms of the Treaty. Antioch came temporarily under Byzantine sway in 1137, but it was not until 1158 that it truly became a Byzantine vassal.
(4 March 1702 – 16 November 1724) was a notorious English
of early 18th-century London. Born into a poor family, he was
as a carpenter but took to theft and burglary in 1723, with little more than a year of his training to complete. He was arrested and imprisoned five times in 1724 but escaped four times, making him a notorious public figure, and wildly popular with the poorer classes. Ultimately, he was caught, convicted, and
, ending his brief criminal career after less than two years. The inability of the notorious "Thief-Taker General"
to control Sheppard, and injuries suffered by Wild at the hands of Sheppard's colleague,
Joseph "Blueskin" Blake
, led to Wild's downfall.
Sheppard was as renowned for his attempts to escape imprisonment as he was for his crimes. An
autobiographical "Narrative", thought to have been
Daniel Defoe, was sold at his execution, Jack Sheppard quickly followed by popular plays. The character of Macheath in
The Beggar's Opera (1728) was based on Sheppard, keeping him in the limelight for over 100 years. He returned to the public consciousness around 1840, when
William Harrison Ainsworth wrote a novel entitled
Jack Sheppard, with illustrations by
George Cruikshank. The popularity of his tale, and the fear that others would be drawn to emulate his behaviour, led the authorities to refuse to
license any plays in London with "Jack Sheppard" in the title for forty years.
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My heart is a stone: heavy with sadness for my people; cold with the knowledge that no treaty will keep whites out of our lands; hard with the determination to resist as long as I live and breathe.
Tecumseh, Native American tribal chief
"I knew that many things were wrong... I witnessed a great many injustices... But it was my revolutionary duty at the time not to criticize and not to help alien propaganda against [the Soviet Union], for at that time it was the only country where a revolution had been carried out and where Socialism had been built. I considered that propaganda should not be made against that country; that my duty was to make propaganda in my own country for Socialism."
Josip Broz Tito
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