The History Portal
(c. 484 BC – c. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history"
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning 'inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation') is the past as it is described in written documents, and the study thereof. Events occurring before written records are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians.
History also includes the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.
Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur), are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is often considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", or by some the "father of lies", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals, was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived.
Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.
The Act of Independence of Lithuania
: Lietuvos Nepriklausomybės Aktas
) or Act of February 16
was signed by the Council of Lithuania
on February 16, 1918, proclaiming the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania
, governed by democratic
principles, with Vilnius
as its capital. The Act was signed by all twenty representatives
, chaired by Jonas Basanavičius
. The Act of February 16 was the end result of a series of resolutions on the issue, including one issued by the Vilnius Conference
and the Act of January 8. The path to the Act was long and complex because the German Empire
exerted pressure on the Council to form an alliance. The Council had to carefully maneuver between the Germans, whose troops were present in Lithuania, and the demands of the Lithuanian people.
The immediate effects of the announcement of Lithuania's re-establishment of independence were limited. Publication of the Act was prohibited by the German authorities, and the text was distributed and printed illegally. The work of the Council was hindered, and Germans remained in control over Lithuania. The situation changed only when Germany lost World War I in the fall of 1918. In November 1918 the first Cabinet of Lithuania was formed, and the Council of Lithuania gained control over the territory of Lithuania. Independent Lithuania, although it would soon be battling the Wars of Independence, became a reality.
(May 13, 1901 – May 25, 1948; Polish pronunciation: [ˈvitɔlt piˈlɛt͡skʲi]
; codenames Roman Jezierski, Tomasz Serafiński, Druh, Witold
) was a soldier
of the Second Polish Republic
, the founder of the Secret Polish Army
(Tajna Armia Polska
group and a member of the Home Army (Armia Krajowa
). As the author of Witold's Report
, the first intelligence report on Auschwitz concentration camp
, Pilecki enabled the Polish government-in-exile
to convince the Allies
that the Holocaust
was taking place.
During World War II, he volunteered for a Polish resistance operation to get imprisoned at Auschwitz in order to gather intelligence and escape. While in the camp, Pilecki organized a resistance movement and as early as 1941, informed the Western Allies of Nazi Germany's Auschwitz atrocities. He escaped from the camp in 1943 and took part in the Warsaw Uprising. He remained loyal to the London-based Polish government-in-exile and was executed in 1948 by the Stalinist secret police Urząd Bezpieczeństwa on charges of working for "foreign imperialism", thought to be a euphemism for MI6. Until 1989, information on his exploits and fate was suppressed by the Polish communist regime.
Did you know...
The Double-headed eagle is a state symbol of the Holy Roman Empire, symbolizing its continuation of the Roman imperial tradition. This hand-colored woodcut depicts the eagle among various states that made up the Empire at the time of the woodcut's creation, in 1510. Through its important symbology in Roman heraldry, the eagle came to occupy an important position in European coat of arms, and still does today, most prominently as the Coat of arms of Russia.
On this day
Fortune, which has a great deal of power in other matters but especially in war, can bring about great changes in a situation through very slight forces.
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