The History Portal
History is the discovery, collection, organization, analysis, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean a continuous, typically chronological record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution. Scholars who write about history are called
historians. It is a field of
knowledge which uses a
narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to objectively investigate the patterns of cause and effect that determine events. Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. The stories common to a particular
culture but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding
King Arthur) are usually classified as
cultural heritage rather than as the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history. Events of the past prior to written record are considered
Amongst scholars, fifth century BC
Herodotus is considered to be the "father of history"; the methods of Herodotus along with his contemporary
Thucydides form the foundations for the modern study of history. Their influence (along with other historical traditions in other parts of their world) has spawned many different interpretations of the nature of history which has developed over the centuries and are continuing to change. The modern study of history has many different fields, including those that focus on certain regions and those that focus on certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. Often, history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.
unification of Germany
into a politically and administratively integrated
officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the
Hall of Mirrors
. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim
as Emperor Wilhelm of the
after the French capitulation in the
. Unofficially, the transition of most of the German-speaking populations into a federated organization of states occurred over nearly a century of experimentation. Unification exposed several glaring religious, linguistic, social, and cultural differences between and among the inhabitants of the new nation, suggesting that 1871 only represents one moment in a continuum of the larger unification processes.
The model of diplomatic
spheres of influence resulting from the
Congress of Vienna in 1814–15 after the
Napoleonic Wars endorsed
Austrian dominance in Central Europe. However, the negotiators at Vienna took no account of Prussia's growing strength within and among the German states, failing to foresee that Prussia would challenge Austria for leadership within the
German states. This
German dualism presented two solutions to the problem of unification:
Kleindeutsche Lösung, the small Germany solution (Germany without Austria), or
Großdeutsche Lösung, greater Germany solution (Germany with Austria). Reaction to Danish and French
nationalism provided foci for expressions of German unity. Military successes—especially Prussian ones—in three regional wars generated enthusiasm and pride that politicians could harness to promote unification. This experience echoed the memory of mutual accomplishment in the Napoleonic Wars, particularly in the
War of Liberation of 1813–14. By establishing a Germany without Austria, the political and administrative unification in 1871 at least temporarily solved the problem of dualism.
Nikita Moiseevich Zotov
: Никита Моисеевич Зотов
) (1644 – December 1717) was a childhood tutor and life-long friend of Russian
Peter the Great
: Пётр I Алексеевич, "Великий"
). Historians disagree on the quality of Zotov's tutoring.
Robert K. Massie
, for example, praises his efforts, but
criticizes the education that he gave to the future Tsar.
Not much is known about Zotov's life aside from his connection to Peter. Zotov left Moscow for a diplomatic mission to
Crimea in 1680, and returned to Moscow before 1683. He became part of the "Jolly Company", a group of several dozen of Peter's friends that eventually formed
The All-Jesting, All-Drunken Synod of Fools with Zotov being appointed "Prince-Pope" of the Synod, and regularly presiding over their entertainments and festivities. He accompanied Peter on many important occasions, such as the
Azov campaigns and the extorturing information from the
Streltsy on high treason after their
uprising. Zotov held a number of state positions, including c.1701 a head position in the Tsar's personal secretariat (
Russian: Тайная канцелярия). Three years before his death, Zotov married a woman 50 years his junior. He died in December 1717 of unknown cause.
Did you know...
Buzz Aldrin's footprint, taken by himself on
Apollo 11, the first manned mission to the moon, on July 20, 1969. The print was part of an experiment to test the properties of the lunar
regolith, but today it is known for being one of the most iconic things left on the moon by humans.
On this day
Those who would give up Essential Liberty to purchase a little Temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.
"Colonialism is an idea born in the West that drives Western countries - like France, Italy, Belgium, Great Britain - to occupy countries outside of Europe."
Ahmed Ben Bella
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