Physical map of Earth
with political borders as of 2016
Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.
Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere.
is the continent
at the extreme southern latitudes
of the Earth
, containing the South Pole
. It is surrounded by the Southern Ocean
and divided in two by the Transantarctic Mountains
. On average, it is the coldest, driest, windiest, and highest of all the continents. Although it is 98% covered in ice
, because there is little precipitation
, the entire continent is technically a desert
and is thus the largest desert in the world. Cold-adapted plants and animals, including penguins
, fur seals
, and many types of algae
live on the continent. Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis
("Southern Land") go back to antiquity, the first sighting of the continent is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1821
by the Russian
expedition of Mikhail Lazarev
and Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen
. Antarctica is not under the political sovereignty
of any nation, although seven countries (Argentina
, New Zealand
and the United Kingdom
) maintain territorial claims
, which are not recognized by other countries. Human activity on the continent is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty
, which was signed in 1959
by 12 countries and prohibits any military activity, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone
In this month
Did you know...
- ... that Gamleborg (fortress ruins pictured) represents Bornholm's oldest defence works?
- ... that Chao Mae Tuptim in Bangkok is a site crammed full of wooden circumcised penis statues which are said to endow good fortune and fertility on anybody coming into contact with them?
- ... that the Bab al-Nairab neighborhood in Aleppo, Syria, was originally a 13th-century gate planned by the Ayyubid ruler az-Zahir Ghazi, but built by his successor al-Aziz Muhammad?
Things you can do
David Alexander Johnston
was a volcanologist
with the United States Geological Survey
(USGS) who was killed by the 1980 eruption
of Mount St. Helens
in Washington. One of the principal scientists on the monitoring team, Johnston died while manning an observation post on the morning of May 18, 1980. He was the first to report the eruption, transmitting the famous message "Vancouver! Vancouver! This is it!" before being swept away by the lateral blast
created by the collapse of the mountain's north flank. His work and that of his fellow USGS scientists had convinced the authorities to close Mount St. Helens to the general public and to maintain the closure in spite of heavy pressure to re-open the area; their work saved thousands of lives. His story has become part of the popular image of volcanic eruptions and their threat to society, and also part of the history of volcanology. Following his death, Johnston was commemorated in several ways, including a memorial fund set up in his name at the University of Washington
, and two volcano observatories that were named after him. Johnston's life and death have been featured in several documentaries, films, docudramas and books about the eruption. Along with other people killed by the volcano, Johnston's name is inscribed on memorials dedicated to their memory.
- Parent project
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