Introduction

Physical map of Earth with political borders as of 2016

Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.

Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere.

True-color image of the Earth's surface and atmosphere. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center image.
True-color image of the Earth's surface and atmosphere. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center image.

Selected general articles

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  • Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Swiss Alps. The moraine is the high bank of debris in the top left hand quarter of the image.

    Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.

    Glaciology is an interdisciplinary Earth science that integrates geophysics, geology, physical geography, geomorphology, climatology, meteorology, hydrology, biology, and ecology. The impact of glaciers on people includes the fields of human geography and anthropology. The discoveries of water ice on the Moon, Mars, Europa and Pluto add an extraterrestrial component to the field, as in "astroglaciology". Read more...
  • Zoogeographic regions of Wallace, 1876

    Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution (present and past) of animal species. Read more...
  • Badlands incised into shale at the foot of the North Caineville Plateau, Utah, within the pass carved by the Fremont River and known as the Blue Gate. GK Gilbert studied the landscapes of this area in great detail, forming the observational foundation for many of his studies on geomorphology.

    Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, , "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphologists work within disciplines such as physical geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology, climatology and geotechnical engineering. This broad base of interests contributes to many research styles and interests within the field. Read more...
  • Frontispiece to Alfred Russel Wallace's book The Geographical Distribution of Animals


    Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time. Organisms and biological communities often vary in a regular fashion along geographic gradients of latitude, elevation, isolation and habitat area. Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that studies the distribution of plants. Zoogeography is the branch that studies distribution of animals.

    Knowledge of spatial variation in the numbers and types of organisms is as vital to us today as it was to our early human ancestors, as we adapt to heterogeneous but geographically predictable environments. Biogeography is an integrative field of inquiry that unites concepts and information from ecology, evolutionary biology, geology, and physical geography. Read more...
  • A 1740 map of Paris.


    Historical geography is the branch of geography that studies the ways in which geographic phenomena have changed over time. It is a synthesizing discipline which shares both topical and methodological similarities with history, anthropology, ecology, geology, environmental studies, literary studies, and other fields. Although the majority of work in historical geography is considered human geography, the field also encompasses studies of geographic change which are not primarily anthropogenic. Historical geography is often a major component of school and university curricula in geography and social studies. Current research in historical geography is being performed by scholars in more than forty countries. Read more...
  • Time geography or time-space geography is an evolving transdisciplinary perspective on spatial and temporal processes and events such as social interaction, ecological interaction, social and environmental change, and biographies of individuals. Time geography "is not a subject area per se", but rather an integrative ontological framework and visual language in which space and time are basic dimensions of analysis of dynamic processes. Time geography was originally developed by human geographers, but today it is applied in multiple fields related to transportation, regional planning, geography, anthropology, time-use research, ecology, environmental science, and public health. According to Swedish geographer Bo Lenntorp: "It is a basic approach, and every researcher can connect it to theoretical considerations in her or his own way." Read more...
  • Stourhead in Wiltshire, England, designed by Henry Hoare (1705–1785), "the first landscape gardener, who showed in a single work, genius of the highest order"


    Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes landscape design; site planning; stormwater management; erosion control; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management. A practitioner in the profession of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect. Read more...
  • The colorful microbial mats of Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone National Park, USA. The orange mats are composed of Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and other organisms that thrive in the 70˚C water. Geobiologists often study extreme environments like this because they are home to extremophilic organisms. It has been hypothesized that these environments may be representative of early Earth.

    Geobiology is a field of scientific research that explores the interactions between the physical Earth and the biosphere. It is a relatively young field, and its borders are fluid. There is considerable overlap with the fields of ecology, evolutionary biology, microbiology, paleontology, and particularly biogeochemistry. Geobiology applies the principles and methods of biology and geology to the study of the ancient history of the co-evolution of life and Earth as well as the role of life in the modern world. Geobiologic studies tend to be focused on microorganisms, and on the role that life plays in altering the chemical and physical environment of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and/or cryosphere. It differs from biogeochemistry in that the focus is on processes and organisms over space and time rather than on global chemical cycles.

    Geobiological research synthesizes the geologic record with modern biologic studies. It deals with process - how organisms affect the Earth and vice versa - as well as history - how the Earth and life have changed together. Much research is grounded in the search for fundamental understanding, but geobiology can also be applied, as in the case of microbes that clean up oil spills. Read more...
  • An artistic depiction of the major events in the history of Earth


    Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves. Absolute geochronology can be accomplished through radioactive isotopes, whereas relative geochronology is provided by tools such as palaeomagnetism and stable isotope ratios. By combining multiple geochronological (and biostratigraphic) indicators the precision of the recovered age can be improved.

    Geochronology is different in application from biostratigraphy, which is the science of assigning sedimentary rocks to a known geological period via describing, cataloguing and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages. Biostratigraphy does not directly provide an absolute age determination of a rock, but merely places it within an interval of time at which that fossil assemblage is known to have coexisted. Both disciplines work together hand in hand however, to the point where they share the same system of naming rock layers and the time spans utilized to classify layers within a stratum. Read more...
  • The original draftsman's drawings for the area around St. Columb Major, Cornwall, made in 1810.

    A national mapping agency is an organisation, usually publicly owned, that produces topographic maps and geographic information of a country. Some national mapping agencies also deal with cadastral matters. Read more...
  • Environmental social science is the broad, transdisciplinary study of interrelations between humans and the natural environment. Environmental social scientists work within and between the fields of anthropology, communication studies, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology, and sociology; and also in the interdisciplinary fields of environmental studies, human ecology and political ecology, social epidemiology, among others. Read more...
  • Cultural geography is a subfield within human geography. Though the first traces of the study of different nations and cultures on Earth can be dated back to ancient geographers such as Ptolemy or Strabo, cultural geography as academic study firstly emerged as an alternative to the environmental determinist theories of the early Twentieth century, which had believed that people and societies are controlled by the environment in which they develop. Rather than studying pre-determined regions based upon environmental classifications, cultural geography became interested in cultural landscapes. This was led by Carl O. Sauer (called the father of cultural geography), at the University of California, Berkeley. As a result, cultural geography was long dominated by American writers.

    Geographers drawing on this tradition see cultures and societies as developing out of their local landscapes but also shaping those landscapes. This interaction between the natural landscape and humans creates the cultural landscape. This understanding is a foundation of cultural geography but has been augmented over the past forty years with more nuanced and complex concepts of culture, drawn from a wide range of disciplines including anthropology, sociology, literary theory, and feminism. No single definition of culture dominates within cultural geography. Regardless of their particular interpretation of culture, however, geographers wholeheartedly reject theories that treat culture as if it took place "on the head of a pin". Read more...
  • Political geography is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. Conventionally, for the purposes of analysis, political geography adopts a three-scale structure with the study of the state at the centre, the study of international relations (or geopolitics) above it, and the study of localities below it. The primary concerns of the subdiscipline can be summarized as the inter-relationships between people, state, and territory. Read more...
  • Atmospheric sciences are the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Climatology is the study of atmospheric changes (both long and short-term) that define average climates and their change over time, due to both natural and anthropogenic climate variability. Aeronomy is the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important. Atmospheric science has been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system.

    Experimental instruments used in atmospheric sciences include satellites, rocketsondes, radiosondes, weather balloons, and lasers. Read more...
  • An ecological analysis of CO
    2
    in an ecosystem. As systems biology, systems ecology seeks a holistic view of the interactions and transactions within and between biological and ecological systems.

    Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth's "spheres"—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere, and, even, the magnetosphere—as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth's spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution of these systems, and their stability or instability. Subsets of Earth system science include systems geology and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth system science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science. Read more...
  • Agricultural patterns of crop production in Kansas

    Agricultural geography is a subdiscipline of human geography concerned with the spatial relationships found between agriculture and humans. Read more...
  • Geostatistics is a branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets. Developed originally to predict probability distributions of ore grades for mining operations, it is currently applied in diverse disciplines including petroleum geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, geochemistry, geometallurgy, geography, forestry, environmental control, landscape ecology, soil science, and agriculture (esp. in precision farming). Geostatistics is applied in varied branches of geography, particularly those involving the spread of diseases (epidemiology), the practice of commerce and military planning (logistics), and the development of efficient spatial networks. Geostatistical algorithms are incorporated in many places, including geographic information systems (GIS) and the R statistical environment. Read more...
  • This page is a list of geography topics.

    Geography is the study of the world and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life and the effects of human activity. Geography research addresses both the questions of where, as well as why, geographical phenomena occur. Geography is a diverse field that seeks to understand the world and all of its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they came to be, and how they have changed since then. Read more...
  • Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanography, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today it provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems.

    Related areas of study include environmental studies and environmental engineering. Environmental studies incorporates more of the social sciences for understanding human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. Environmental engineering focuses on design and technology for improving environmental quality in every aspect. Read more...

  • Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation, especially the Earth. Remote sensing is used in numerous fields, including geography, land surveying and most Earth Science disciplines (for example, hydrology, ecology, meteorology, oceanography, glaciology, geology); it also has military, intelligence, commercial, economic, planning, and humanitarian applications.

    In current usage, the term "remote sensing" generally refers to the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth, including on the surface and in the atmosphere and oceans, based on propagated signals (e.g. electromagnetic radiation). It may be split into "active" remote sensing (i.e., when a signal is emitted by a satellite or aircraft and its reflection by the object is detected by the sensor) and "passive" remote sensing (i.e., when the reflection of sunlight is detected by the sensor). Read more...
  • New York City, one of the largest urban areas in the world

    Urban geography is the subdiscipline of geography that derives from a study of cities and urban processes. Urban geographers and urbanists examine various aspects of urban life and the built environment. Scholars, activists, and the public have participated in, studied, and critiqued flows of economic and natural resources, human and non-human bodies, patterns of development and infrastructure, political and institutional activities, governance, decay and renewal, and notions of socio-spatial inclusions, exclusions, and everyday life. Read more...
  • Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. It represents a traditional subfield of the discipline of geography. However, many economists have also approached the field in ways more typical of the discipline of economics.

    Economic geography has taken a variety of approaches to many different subject matters, including the location of industries, economies of agglomeration (also known as "linkages"), transportation, international trade, development, real estate, gentrification, ethnic economies, gendered economies, core-periphery theory, the economics of urban form, the relationship between the environment and the economy (tying into a long history of geographers studying culture-environment interaction), and globalization. Read more...
  • Land cover surrounding Madison, WI. Fields are colored yellow and brown, water is colored blue, and urban surfaces are colored red.

    Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems. This is done within a variety of landscape scales, development spatial patterns, and organizational levels of research and policy.

    As a highly interdisciplinary field in systems science, landscape ecology integrates biophysical and analytical approaches with humanistic and holistic perspectives across the natural sciences and social sciences. Landscapes are spatially heterogeneous geographic areas characterized by diverse interacting patches or ecosystems, ranging from relatively natural terrestrial and aquatic systems such as forests, grasslands, and lakes to human-dominated environments including agricultural and urban settings. The most salient characteristics of landscape ecology are its emphasis on the relationship among pattern, process and scale, and its focus on broad-scale ecological and environmental issues. These necessitate the coupling between biophysical and socioeconomic sciences. Key research topics in landscape ecology include ecological flows in landscape mosaics, land use and land cover change, scaling, relating landscape pattern analysis with ecological processes, and landscape conservation and sustainability. Read more...
  • A map of the world.
    The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography:

    Geography – study of earth and its people. Read more...

  • Coastal geography is the study of the constantly changing region between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast. It includes understanding coastal weathering processes, particularly wave action, sediment movement and weather, and the ways in which humans interact with the coast Read more...
  • Group photo at the 12th International Geography Olympiad in Russia in August 2015.

    The International Geography Olympiad (iGeo) is an annual competition for 16- to 19-year-old geography students from all over the world. Students chosen to represent their countries are some of the best, chosen from thousands of students who participate enthusiastically in their own National Geography Olympiads. iGeo tests the abilities of every participants in spatial patterns and processes. The iGeo consists of three parts: a written test, a multimedia test and a substantial fieldwork exercise requiring observation, leading to cartographic representation and geographical analysis. The programme also includes poster presentations by teams, cultural exchanges, and time for students to get to know their fellow students and explore the host city.

    The International Geography Olympiad is organised by the International Geographical Union (IGU) Olympiad Task Force, who produce tests with reference to the local organisers and the international board. Read more...
  • As defined by National Geographic, geo-literacy is "the ability to use geographic understanding and geographic reasoning to make decisions". Read more...
  • The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups. In more recent developments, geography has become a distinct academic discipline. 'Geography' derives from the Greek γεωγραφίαgeographia, a literal translation of which would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). However, there is evidence for recognizable practices of geography, such as cartography (or map-making) prior to the use of the term geography. Read more...
  • Geoinformatics is the science and the technology which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geography, cartography, geosciences and related branches of science and engineering. Read more...
  • Climatology is the scientific study of the climate.


    Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences. Climatology now includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry. Basic knowledge of climate can be used within shorter term weather forecasting using analog techniques such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO), the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) which is also known as the Arctic oscillation (AO), the Northern Pacific (NP) Index, the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Climate models are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate. Weather is known as the condition of the atmosphere over a period of time, while climate has to do with the atmospheric condition over an extended to indefinite period of time. Read more...
  • Soil Profile on Chalk at Seven Sisters Country Park, England


    Pedology (from Greek: πέδον, pedon, "soil"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the study of soils in their natural environment. It is one of two main branches of soil science, the other being edaphology. Pedology deals with pedogenesis, soil morphology, and soil classification, while edaphology studies the way soils influence plants, fungi, and other living things. Read more...
  • A medieval depiction of the Ecumene (1482, Johannes Schnitzer, engraver), constructed after the coordinates in Ptolemy's Geography and using his second map projection. The translation into Latin and dissemination of Geography in Europe, in the beginning of the 15th century, marked the rebirth of scientific cartography, after more than a millennium of stagnation.


    Cartography (i/; from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.

    The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:
    • Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries.
    • Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections.
    • Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization.
    • Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped. This is also the concern of generalization.
    • Orchestrate the elements of the map to best convey its message to its audience. This is the concern of map design.
    Read more...
  • Hepatitis A prevalence worldwide, 2005.

    Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care. Read more...
  • Rice terraces located in Mu Cang Chai district, Yen Bai province, Vietnam

    Integrated geography (also referred to as integrative geography, environmental geography or human–environment geography) is the branch of geography that describes and explains the spatial aspects of interactions between human individuals or societies and their natural environment, these interactions being called coupled human–environment systems. Read more...
  • Map of world population density in 1994


    Population geography is a division of human geography. It is the study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations are related to the nature of places. Population geography involves demography in a geographical perspective. It focuses on the characteristics of population distributions that change in a spatial context. This often involves factors such as where populations are found and how the size and composition of these populations is regulated by the demographic processes of fertility, mortality, and migration. Contributions to population geography are cross-disciplinary because geographical epistemologies related to environment, place and space have been developed at various times. Related disciplines include geography, demography, sociology, and economics.

    Since its inception, population geography has taken at least three distinct but related forms, the most recent of which appears increasingly integrated with human geography in general. The earliest and most enduring form of population geography emerged in the 1950s, as part of spatial science. Pioneered by Glenn Trewartha, Wilbur Zelinsky, William A. V. Clark, and others in the United States, as well as Jacqueline Beujeau-Garnier and Pierre George in France, it focused on the systematic study of the distribution of population as a whole and the spatial variation in population characteristics such as fertility and mortality.
    Population geography defined itself as the systematic study of: Read more...
  • A surveyor's shed showing equipment used for geomatics

    Geomatics is defined in the ISO/TC 211 series of standards as the "discipline concerned with the collection, distribution, storage, analysis, processing, presentation of geographic data or geographic information". Under another definition it "consists of products, services and tools involved in the collection, integration and management of geographic data".
    It includes geomatics engineering (and surveying engineering) and is related to geospatial science (also geospatial engineering and geospatial technology). Read more...
  • false color image
    Age of the sea floor. Much of the dating information comes from magnetic anomalies.

    Geophysics s/ is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis. The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape; its gravitational and magnetic fields; its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation. However, modern geophysics organizations use a broader definition that includes the water cycle including snow and ice; fluid dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere; electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial relations; and analogous problems associated with the Moon and other planets.

    Although geophysics was only recognized as a separate discipline in the 19th century, its origins date back to ancient times. The first magnetic compasses were made from lodestones, while more modern magnetic compasses played an important role in the history of navigation. The first seismic instrument was built in 132 AD. Isaac Newton applied his theory of mechanics to the tides and the precession of the equinox; and instruments were developed to measure the Earth's shape, density and gravity field, as well as the components of the water cycle. In the 20th century, geophysical methods were developed for remote exploration of the solid Earth and the ocean, and geophysics played an essential role in the development of the theory of plate tectonics. Read more...
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    Selected images

    Selected geographers

    Topics

    Main regions of Earth

    Antarctica (orthographic projection).svg
    Antarctica
    Afro-Eurasia (orthographic projection).svg
    Afro-Eurasia
    Americas (orthographic projection).svg
    Americas
    Australia (orthographic projection).svg
    Australia
    Africa (orthographic projection).svg
    Africa
    Eurasia (orthographic projection).svg
    Eurasia
    North America (orthographic projection).svg
    North America
    Oceania (orthographic projection).svg
    Oceania
    Europe (orthographic projection).svg
    Europe
    Asia (orthographic projection).svg
    Asia
    South America (orthographic projection).svg
    South America
    Supercontinents:
    Gondwana • Laurasia • Pangaea • Rodinia

    General topics

    Recognized content

    Subportals

    Places near you
    Geography (Atlas)

    Branches of Geography: Human geographyPhysical geography

    Landforms (types)

    IslandsMountainsRivers

    Bodies of water

    Aegean SeaBlack SeaColumbia RiverDnieper RiverPanama CanalSuez Canal

    Africa

    AlgeriaAngolaBeninBotswanaBurkina FasoBurundiCameroonCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadRepublic of the CongoDemocratic Republic of the CongoDjiboutiEgypt (Desouk) • EritreaEthiopiaGabonThe GambiaGhanaGuineaGuinea-BissauIvory CoastKenya (Geography, Mombasa, Nairobi) • LiberiaLibyaMadagascarMalawiMaliMauritaniaMauritiusMoroccoMozambiqueNamibiaNigerNigeria (Abuja, Port Harcourt, Lagos, Rivers State) • RwandaSão Tomé and PríncipeSenegalSierra LeoneSomaliaSomalilandSouth AfricaSouth SudanSudanTanzaniaTogoTunisiaUgandaWestern SaharaZambiaZimbabwe

    AntarcticaArctic

    Asia

    AbkhaziaBhutanBangladesh (Bengal, Chittagong, Dhaka) • BruneiCambodiaCentral AsiaChina (Beijing, Great Wall of China, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macau, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tibet) • East TimorTaiwanHimalaya regionIndonesia (Aceh, Jakarta) • Japan (Osaka, Tokyo) • KazakhstanKorea (North Korea, South Korea, Seoul) • KyrgyzstanMalaysia (Malacca, Sabah) • MaldivesMongolia (Ulan Bator) • MyanmarNepalPhilippines (Bohol, Davao City, Negros Oriental) • PunjabSAARCSingaporeSri LankaTajikistanThailandTurkeyVietnam
    India
    States of India: Andhra Pradesh • Arunachal Pradesh • Assam • Bihar • Chhattisgarh • Goa • Gujarat • Haryana • Himachal Pradesh • Jharkhand • Karnataka • Kashmir • Kerala • Madhya Pradesh • Maharashtra • Manipur • Meghalaya • Mizoram • Nagaland • Odisha • Punjab • Rajasthan • Sikkim • Tamil Nadu • Telangana • Tripura • Uttar Pradesh • Uttarakhand • West Bengal
    Cities in India: Ahmedabad • Bangalore • Chandigarh • Chennai • Delhi • Hisar • Hyderabad • Kochi • Kolkata • Kollam • Madurai • Mumbai • Patna • Thiruvananthapuram • Tiruchirappalli • Udaipur • Jodhpur
    Pakistan
    Balochistan • Gilgit-Baltistan • Islamabad • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Chitral) • Punjab (Lahore, Jhelum, Sialkot) • Sindh (Karachi)

    Caucasus (a region considered to be in both Asia and Europe, or between them)

    Europe

    European Union
    AlpsAustria (Vienna, Tyrol) • BasqueBelgium (Brussels) • BulgariaPortal:Carpathian MountainsCarpathian RutheniaCatalan-speaking countriesChannel IslandsCorsicaCroatiaCzech Republic (Prague) • Denmark (Aarhus, Copenhagen, Skagen) • EstoniaFinlandFrance (Brittany, Paris, Lyon, Normandy, Rhône-Alpes) • GibraltarGreece (Macedonia) • Hungary (Budapest, Miskolc) • Ireland (Kilkenny) • Italy (Rome, Milan, Venice, Turin, Florence) • LatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgMaltaNetherlandsPolandPortugal (Azores, Lisbon) • Romania (Bucharest, Transylvania) • SilesiaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain (Portal:Canary Islands, Galicia) • Sweden
    Germany
    Baden-WürttembergBavariaBerlinBrandenburgBremenDresdenEast FrisiaEifelElbe-ElsterElbe Sandstone MountainsElbe-Weser TriangleFranconiaHamburgHarz MountainsHesseLower SaxonyLüneburg HeathLusatiaMecklenburg-VorpommernNorth Palatine UplandsNorth Rhine-WestphaliaOre MountainsPalatine ForestPomeraniaRhineland-PalatinateRhönSaarlandSaxonySaxony-AnhaltSchleswig-HolsteinSilesiaThuringiaWesterwald
    United Kingdom
    Commonwealth realms
    England
    HertfordshireLondonLutonPeak District
    East Midlands
    Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Stamford
    North East England
    Northumberland
    North West England
    Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire, Merseyside
    South East England
    Berkshire, Brighton, Buckinghamshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, Kent, Oxfordshire, Surrey, Sussex, Isle of Wight
    South West England
    Bristol, Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, Wiltshire
    West Midlands
    Birmingham
    Yorkshire and the Humber
    Bradford, Kingston upon Hull, Leeds, Yorkshire
    Northern Ireland
    Belfast
    Scotland
    DundeeEdinburghGlasgowScottish islands
    Wales
    CardiffMonmouthVale of Glamorgan
    Albania (Tirana) • AndorraArmeniaAzerbaijanBelarusBosnia and HerzegovinaCrimeaFaroe IslandsGeorgiaIcelandIsle of ManKosovoRepublic of MacedoniaMoldovaMontenegroNorwayRussia (Bashkortostan, Chechnya, Moscow) • SerbiaSwitzerland (Geneva) • TurkeyUkraineVatican City

    Latin America and Caribbean

    (North America)
    Mexico
    Central America
    BelizeCosta RicaEl SalvadorGuatemalaHondurasNicaraguaPanama
    Caribbean
    ArubaBahamasBermudaBritish Virgin IslandsCubaDominican RepublicGrenadaGuadeloupeHaitiJamaicaPuerto RicoTrinidad and Tobago (City of Port of SpainCity of San FernandoTobago)
    South America
    Argentina (Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Rosario) • BoliviaBrazilChile (Easter IslandPichilemu) • ColombiaEcuador (Galápagos Islands) • French GuianaGuyanaParaguayPeruSurinameUruguayVenezuela

    Middle East

    AfghanistanArab worldCyprusEgyptIran (Tabaristan, Iranian Azerbaijan, Nishapur) • IraqIsrael (Jerusalem) • JordanKazakhstanKurdistanLebanonLibyaMoroccoOmanPalestineSaudi ArabiaSyriaTajikistanTurkeyUnited Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Sharjah) • Uzbekistan

    North America

    Acadia
    Canada (Geography of Canada)
    Alberta (Calgary, Edmonton) • British Columbia (Vancouver) • ManitobaNew BrunswickNewfoundland and Labrador (St. John's) • Northwest TerritoriesNova ScotiaNunavutOntario (Eastern OntarioOttawaTorontoHamilton) • Prince Edward IslandQuebec (Gaspésie, Mauricie, Montérégie, Montreal, Quebec City, Estrie, Laurentides, Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean) • SaskatchewanYukon
    Caribbean
    ArubaBahamasBermudaBritish Virgin IslandsCubaDominican RepublicGrenadaHaitiJamaicaPuerto RicoTrinidad and Tobago (City of Port of SpainCity of San Fernando)
    Central America
    BelizeCosta RicaEl SalvadorGuatemalaHondurasNicaraguaPanama
    Mexico
    San Diego–Tijuana
    United States
    AlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCalifornia (Inland Empire, Greater Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Diego County, San Diego–Tijuana, San Francisco Bay Area) • Cape Cod and the IslandsColoradoConnecticutDelawareDistrict of ColumbiaFlorida (Jacksonville, Miami, Pensacola) • Georgia (Atlanta) • HawaiiIdahoIllinois (Chicago) • Indiana (Indianapolis) • IowaKansasKentucky (Louisville) • Louisiana (New Orleans) • MaineMaryland (Baltimore) • Massachusetts (Boston) • Michigan (Metro Detroit) • Minnesota (Minneapolis, Rochester) • MississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevada (Las Vegas) • New EnglandNew HampshireNew JerseyNew Mexico
    New York
    Briarcliff Manor • Capital District • Finger Lakes • Hudson Valley • New Rochelle
    New York City
    Boroughs of NYC: Brooklyn (Coney Island) • The Bronx • Manhattan • Queens • Staten Island
    Syracuse
    North CarolinaNorth DakotaOhio (Cleveland) • OklahomaOregonPennsylvania (Erie, Lancaster, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh) • Puerto RicoRhode Island (Newport) • South CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexas (Austin, Dallas, Houston) • UtahVermontVirginiaWashington (Seattle) • West VirginiaWisconsinWyomingYellowstone National Park

    Oceania

    Australia
    Australian Capital TerritoryNew South Wales (City of Bankstown) • Northern TerritoryQueensland (Brisbane) • South AustraliaTasmaniaVictoria (Melbourne) • Western Australia (Perth)
    KiribatiMicronesiaNew ZealandPapua New GuineaTuvalu


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