The Habitation at Port-Royal was established on the other side of the river by Pierre Du Gua de Monts, with the able assistance of individuals such as Samuel de Champlain, Louis Hébert and Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt et de Saint-Just, in 1605 and it lasted until 1613.
During the Anglo-French War (1627–1629), under Charles I, by 1629 the Kirkes took Quebec City, Lord Ochiltree (Sir James Stewart of Killeith) planted a colony on Cape Breton Island at Baleine, and Sir William Alexander established the first incarnation of "New Scotland" at Port-Royal (present day Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia). This set of British triumphs which left only Cape Sable (present-day Port La Tour, Nova Scotia) as the only major French holding in North America was not destined to last.
In 1621 King James I of England granted to Sir William Alexander all of Nova Scotia, which then included New Brunswick. On July 28, 1629, Sir William Alexander (the younger) and seventy Scottish settlers were established at Port-Royal (present day Annapolis Royal). During this time there were few French inhabitants in the colony. In 1629, Sir William sent a ship and some settlers who built Charles Fort at Port-Royal, close to the site of Charles Fort - National Historic Site). In 1631, under the terms of the Treaty of Saint Germain-en-Laye, the colonists were ordered to abandon Port-Royal (present day Annapolis Royal) to the French. The official handover did not take place until late in 1632 and this gave Captain Andrew Forrester, commander of the then Scottish community the opportunity to cross the Bay of Fundy with twenty-five armed men and raid Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour's Fort Sainte-Marie at Saint John, New Brunswick.[b]
In 1633, protecting the boundary of Acadia, Charles de la Tour, the French commander of Acadia, made a descent upon Machias, Maine from his seat at Port-Royal (present day Annapolis Royal), killing two of its six defenders, and carrying the others away with their merchandise. The French then established Fort Ste. Marie de Grace as the capital on the LaHave River before re-establishing Port Royal.