Pope Leo XIII

Pope
Leo XIII
Bishop of Rome
Leo XIII..jpg
Pope Leo XIII
Papacy began 20 February 1878
Papacy ended 20 July 1903
Predecessor Pius IX
Successor Pius X
Orders
Ordination 31 December 1837
by  Carlo Odescalchi
Consecration 19 February 1843
by  Luigi Lambruschini
Created Cardinal 19 December 1853
by Pius IX
Personal details
Birth name Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci
Born 2 March 1810
Carpineto Romano, département of Rome, French Empire
Died 20 July 1903(1903-07-20) (aged 93)
Apostolic Palace, Rome, Italy
Previous post
Signature Leo XIII's signature
Coat of arms Leo XIII's coat of arms
Other popes named Leo
Papal styles of
Pope Leo XIII
Coat of arms of Pope Leo XIII.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style None
Ordination history of
Pope Leo XIII
History
Priestly ordination
Ordained by Carlo Odescalchi
Date of ordination 31 December 1837
Episcopal consecration
Principal consecrator Luigi Lambruschini
Co-consecrators Fabio Maria Asquini
Giuseppe Maria Castellani
Date of consecration 19 February 1843
Cardinalate
Elevated by Pius IX
Date of elevation 19 December 1853
Episcopal succession
Bishops consecrated by Pope Leo XIII as principal consecrator
Antonio Briganti 19 November 1871
Carmelo Pascucci 19 November 1871
Carlo Laurenzi 24 June 1877
Edoardo Borromeo 19 May 1878
Francesco Latoni 1 June 1879
Jean Baptiste François Pitra 1 June 1879
Bartholomew Woodlock 1 June 1879
Agostino Bausa 24 March 1889
Giuseppe Antonio Ermenegildo Prisco 29 May 1898

Pope Leo XIII ( Italian: Leone; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; [a] 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death. He was the oldest pope (reigning until the age of 93), and had the third longest confirmed pontificate, behind that of Pius IX (his immediate predecessor) and John Paul II. He is the most recent pontiff to date to take the pontifical name of "Leo" upon being elected to the pontificate.

He is well known for his intellectualism and his attempts to define the position of the Catholic Church with regard to modern thinking. In his famous 1891 encyclical Rerum novarum, Pope Leo outlined the rights of workers to a fair wage, safe working conditions, and the formation of labor unions, while affirming the rights of property and free enterprise, opposing both Atheistic Marxism and laissez-faire capitalism. He influenced Roman Catholic Mariology and promoted both the rosary and the scapular.

Leo XIII issued a record of eleven Papal encyclicals on the rosary earning him the title as the "Rosary Pope". In addition, he approved two new Marian scapulars and was the first pope to fully embrace the concept of Mary as Mediatrix. He was the first pope to never have held any control over the Papal States, after they had been dissolved by 1870. He was briefly buried in the grottos of Saint Peter's Basilica before his remains were later transferred to the Basilica of Saint John Lateran.

Early life and education, 1810–36

The house in Carpineto, in which the Pecci brothers grew up

Born in Carpineto Romano, near Rome, he was the sixth of the seven sons of Count Ludovico Pecci and his wife Anna Prosperi Buzzi. His brothers included Giuseppe and Giovanni Battista Pecci. Until 1818 he lived at home with his family, "in which religion counted as the highest grace on earth, as through her, salvation can be earned for all eternity". [1] Together with his brother Giuseppe, he studied in the Jesuit College in Viterbo, where he stayed until 1824. [2] He enjoyed the Latin language and was known to write his own Latin poems at the age of eleven.

In 1824 he and his older brother Giuseppe were called to Rome where their mother was dying. Count Pecci wanted his children near him after the loss of his wife, and so they stayed with him in Rome, attending the Jesuit Collegium Romanum.

In 1828, 18-year-old Vincenzo decided in favour of secular clergy, while his brother Giuseppe entered the Jesuit order. [3] He studied at the Academia dei Nobili, mainly diplomacy and law. In 1834, he gave a student presentation, attended by several cardinals, on papal judgements. For his presentation he received awards for academic excellence, and gained the attention of Vatican officials. [4] Cardinal Secretary of State Luigi Lambruschini introduced him to Vatican congregations. During a cholera epidemic in Rome he assisted Cardinal Sala in his duties as overseer of all the city hospitals. [5] In 1836 he received his doctorate in theology and doctorates of civil and Canon Law in Rome.

Other Languages
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Aymar aru: Liyun XIII
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Bân-lâm-gú: Kàu-hông Leo 13-sè
български: Лъв XIII
Boarisch: Leo XIII.
brezhoneg: Leon XIII
català: Lleó XIII
čeština: Lev XIII.
Cymraeg: Pab Leo XIII
Deutsch: Leo XIII.
eesti: Leo XIII
Ελληνικά: Πάπας Λέων ΙΓ΄
español: León XIII
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hrvatski: Lav XIII.
Bahasa Indonesia: Paus Leo XIII
italiano: Papa Leone XIII
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Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gáu-huòng Leo 13-sié
Nederlands: Paus Leo XIII
norsk: Leo XIII
occitan: Leon XIII
polski: Leon XIII
português: Papa Leão XIII
Runa Simi: Liyun XIII
русский: Лев XIII
shqip: Leoni XIII
sicilianu: Liuni XIII
Simple English: Pope Leo XIII
slovenčina: Lev XIII.
slovenščina: Papež Leon XIII.
српски / srpski: Папа Лав XIII
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lav XIII.
suomi: Leo XIII
svenska: Leo XIII
Türkçe: XIII. Leo
українська: Лев XIII
Tiếng Việt: Giáo hoàng Lêô XIII
Yorùbá: Pópù Leo 13k
粵語: 良十三世