Pope Leo X

Pope
Leo X
Bishop of Rome
Raffael 040 (crop).jpg
Papacy began9 March 1513
Papacy ended1 December 1521
PredecessorJulius II
SuccessorAdrian VI
Orders
Ordination15 March 1513
by Raffaele Sansone Riario
Consecration17 March 1513
by Raffaele Sansone Riario
Created cardinal

by Innocent VIII
Personal details
Birth nameGiovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici
Born11 December 1475
Florence, Republic of Florence
Died1 December 1521(1521-12-01) (aged 45)
Rome, Papal States
Previous post
Coat of armsLeo X's coat of arms
Other popes named Leo
Papal styles of
Pope Leo X
Medici popes.svg
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleNone
Ordination history of
Pope Leo X
History
Priestly ordination
Date15 March 1513
Episcopal consecration
Consecrated byRaffaele Sansone Riario
Date17 March 1513
Cardinalate
Elevated byInnocent VIII
Date9 March 1489 in pectore (revealed: 26 March 1492)
Episcopal succession
Bishops consecrated by Pope Leo X as principal consecrator
Lorenzo Pucci13 December 1513
Baltasar del Río22 October 1515
Pedro de Urieta29 October 1516
Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici21 December 1517
Ferdinando Ponzetti21 December 1517
Alessandro Farnese2 July 1519

Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.[1]

The second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of the Florentine Republic, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. Following the death of Pope Julius II, Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College. Early on in his rule he oversaw the closing sessions of the Fifth Council of the Lateran, but struggled to implement the reforms agreed. In 1517 he led a costly war that succeeded in securing his nephew as Duke of Urbino, but which reduced papal finances.

In Protestant circles, Leo is associated with granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica, a practice that was soon challenged by Martin Luther's 95 Theses, following his visit to Rome in 1511. He refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the demands of what would become the Protestant Reformation, and his Papal Bull of 1520, Exsurge Domine, condemned Martin Luther's condemnatory stance, rendering ongoing communication difficult. Notwithstanding these divisions, he granted establishment to the Oratory of Divine Love.

He borrowed and spent money without circumspection. A significant patron of the arts, upon election Leo is alleged to have said, "Since God has given us the papacy, let us enjoy it." Under his reign, progress was made on the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica and artists such as Raphael decorated the Vatican rooms. Leo also reorganised the Roman University, and promoted the study of literature, poetry and antiquities. He died in 1521 and is buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome. He was the last pope not to have been in priestly orders at the time of his election to the papacy.

Early life

Santa Maria in Domnica

Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici was born on December 11, 1475 in the Republic of Florence, the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was head of the Florentine Republic.[1]

From an early age he was destined for an ecclesiastical career. He received the tonsure at the age of seven and was soon granted rich benefices and preferments.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pous Leo X
العربية: ليو العاشر
asturianu: Llión X
Bân-lâm-gú: Kàu-hông Leo 10-sè
беларуская: Леў X (Папа Рымскі)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Леў X
български: Лъв X
bosanski: Papa Lav X
brezhoneg: Leon X
català: Lleó X
čeština: Lev X.
Deutsch: Leo X.
eesti: Leo X
Ελληνικά: Πάπας Λέων Ι΄
español: León X
Esperanto: Leono la 10-a
euskara: Leon X.a
فارسی: لئون دهم
français: Léon X
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kau-fòng Leo 10-sṳ
hrvatski: Lav X.
Ilokano: Papa Leon X
Bahasa Indonesia: Paus Leo X
italiano: Papa Leone X
Basa Jawa: Paus Leo X
ქართული: ლეო X
Kiswahili: Papa Leo X
Latina: Leo X
latviešu: Leons X
lietuvių: Leonas X
македонски: Папа Лав X
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gáu-huòng Leo 10-sié
Nederlands: Paus Leo X
norsk: Leo X
Piemontèis: Leon X
polski: Leon X
português: Papa Leão X
Runa Simi: Liyun X
русский: Лев X
Scots: Pape Leo X
sicilianu: Liuni X
Simple English: Pope Leo X
slovenčina: Lev X.
slovenščina: Papež Leon X.
српски / srpski: Папа Лав X
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lav X.
suomi: Leo X
svenska: Leo X
Tagalog: Papa Leo X
Türkçe: X. Leo
українська: Лев X
Tiếng Việt: Giáo hoàng Lêô X
West-Vlams: Paus Leo X
Winaray: Papa Leon X
Yorùbá: Pópù Leo 10k
粵語: 良十世