Pope Clement VI

Clement VI
Papa Clemens Sextus.jpg
Papacy began7 May 1342
Papacy ended6 December 1352
PredecessorBenedict XII
SuccessorInnocent VI
Created Cardinal18 December 1338
by Benedict XII
Personal details
Birth namePierre Roger
Maumont, Rosiers-d'Égletons, Limousin, Kingdom of France
Died(1352-12-06)6 December 1352
Avignon, Papal States
Other popes named Clement

Clement VI (Latin: Clemens VI; 1291 – 6 December 1352), born Pierre Roger,[1] was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352. He was the fourth Avignon pope. Clement reigned during the first visitation of the Black Death (1348–1350), during which he granted remission of sins to all who died of the plague.

Roger steadfastly resisted temporal encroachments on the Church's ecclesiastical jurisdiction and, as Clement VI, entrenched French dominance of the Church and opened its coffers to enhance the regal splendour of the Papacy. He recruited composers and music theorists for his court, including figures associated with the then-innovative Ars Nova style of France and the Low Countries. His nepotism was ultimately reflected in the 44 statues of relatives which surrounded his sarcophagus.

Early life

Birth and family

Pierre Roger (also spelled Rogier and Rosiers) was born in the château of Maumont, today part of the commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, Corrèze, in Limousin, France, the son of the lord of Maumont-Rosiers-d'Égletons. He had an elder brother, Guillaume, who married three times and had thirteen children; and a younger brother, Hugues, who became Cardinal Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso and who could have become pope in 1362. Pierre also had two sisters: Delphine, who married Jacques de Besse; and Alienor, who married Jacques de la Jugie. His brother Guillaume became Seigneur de Chambon, thanks to his wife's dowry, and, with the benefit of his papal brother's influence on King Philip VI, became Vicomte de Beaufort.[2]

Monk and scholar

Roger entered the Benedictine order[3] as a boy in 1301, at the Abbey of La Chaise-Dieu in the diocese of Clermont in the Auvergne.[4] After six years there, he was directed to higher studies by the Bishop of Le Puy, Jean de Cumenis, and his own abbot, Hugues d'Arc.[5] In 1307 he took up studies in Paris at the College de Sorbonne, where he entered the Collège de Narbonne. To support him, beyond what was supplied by his bishop and his abbot, he was granted the post of Prior of St. Pantaléon in the diocese of Limoges.[6] In the summer of 1323, after Pierre had been studying both theology and canon law[7] in Paris for sixteen years, the Chancellor of Paris was ordered by Pope John XXII, on the recommendation of King Charles IV, to confer on him the doctorate in Theology, a chair, and a license to teach.[8] Pierre was in his thirty-first year.[9] He lectured publicly on the Sententiae of Peter Lombard, and defended and promoted the works of Thomas Aquinas. He was appalled by the Defensor Pacis of Marsilius of Padua, and wrote a treatise in 1325 condemning its principles and defending Pope John XXII.[10]

He was granted the priory of St. Baudil, a dependency of the Abbey of La Chaise-Dieu, on 24 April 1324, at the personal order of Pope John XXII; and then, on 23 June 1326, he was named Abbot of Fécamp, a royal abbey and one of the most important monasteries in France. He held the position until 1329.[11]

Pierre Roger was called to Avignon through the influence of his friend and protector, Cardinal Pierre de Mortemart (who was named a cardinal on 18 December 1327), both of whom were close to King Charles IV.[12] Unfortunately, King Charles IV died on 1 February 1328, the last Capetian king of France in the direct line.

As Abbot of Fécamp, and therefore a feudal subject of Edward III, Pierre was assigned the task in 1328 of summoning Edward III of England to pay homage to Philip VI of France for the duchy of Aquitaine.[13] He received no reply, however, from King Edward, and was forced to return to France, his mission unaccomplished.[14]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pous Clemens VI
български: Климент VI
brezhoneg: Klemañs VI
čeština: Klement VI.
Deutsch: Clemens VI.
eesti: Clemens VI
español: Clemente VI
Esperanto: Klemento la 6-a
euskara: Klemente VI.a
فارسی: کلمنت ششم
français: Clément VI
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kau-fòng Clemens 6-sṳ
hrvatski: Klement VI.
Bahasa Indonesia: Paus Klemens VI
Basa Jawa: Paus Clemens VI
ქართული: კლემენტ VI
Kiswahili: Papa Klementi VI
Latina: Clemens VI
latviešu: Klements VI
lietuvių: Klemensas VI
македонски: Папа Климент VI
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gáu-huòng Clemens 6-sié
Nederlands: Paus Clemens VI
norsk: Klemens VI
occitan: Clamenç VI
polski: Klemens VI
português: Papa Clemente VI
русский: Климент VI
sicilianu: Climenti VI
slovenčina: Klement VI.
slovenščina: Papež Klemen VI.
српски / srpski: Папа Климент VI
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Klement VI.
suomi: Klemens VI
svenska: Clemens VI
Türkçe: VI. Clemens
українська: Климент VI
粵語: 克勉六世