Pope Benedict XIV

Pope

Benedict XIV
Bishop of Rome
Benoit XIV.jpg
Oil painting by Pierre Subleyras
Papacy began17 August 1740
Papacy ended3 May 1758
PredecessorClement XII
SuccessorClement XIII
Orders
Ordination2 July 1724
Consecration16 July 1724
by Benedict XIII
Created cardinal
  • 9 December 1726 (in pectore)
  • 30 April 1728 (revealed)

by Benedict XIII
Personal details
Birth nameProspero Lorenzo Lambertini
Born(1675-03-31)31 March 1675
Bologna, Emilia-Romagna Papal States
Died3 May 1758(1758-05-03) (aged 83)
Rome, Papal States
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Coat of armsBenedict XIV's coat of arms
Other popes named Benedict

Pope Benedict XIV (Latin: Benedictus XIV; 31 March 1675 – 3 May 1758), born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, served as the Pope of the Catholic Church from 17 August 1740 to his death in 1758.[note 1]

Perhaps one of the greatest scholars in Christendom, yet often overlooked, he promoted scientific learning, the baroque arts, reinvigoration of Thomism, and the study of the human form. Firmly established with great devotion and adherence to the Council of Trent and authentic Catholic teaching, Benedict removed changes previously made to the Breviary, sought peacefully to reverse growing secularism in certain European courts, invigorated ceremonies with great pomp, and throughout his life and his reign, published numerous theological treatises. In terms of the governance of the Papal States, he reduced taxation and also encouraged agriculture. He also supported free trade. A scholar, he laid the groundwork for the present Vatican Museum. Benedict XIV, to an extent can be considered a polymath due to his numerous studies of ancient literature, the publishing of ecclesiastical books and documents, the study of the human body, and his great devotion to art and theology.

Horace Walpole described him as "a priest without insolence or interest, a prince without favorites, a pope without nephews."[1]

Early life

Birth and studies

Lambertini was born into a noble family of Bologna to Marcello Lambertini and Lucrezia Bulgarini, the third of five children. At the time of his birth, Bologna was the second largest city in the Papal States. At the age of thirteen, he began attending the Collegium Clementianum in Rome, where he studied rhetoric, Latin, philosophy, and theology. During his studies as a young man, he often studied the works of St. Thomas Aquinas, who was his favourite author and saint. While he enjoyed studying at Collegium Clementianum, the bent of his mind was well towards ecclesiastical and civil law, and actively enforcing it. Soon after, in 1694 at the age of nineteen, he received the degree of Doctor of Sacred Theology and Doctor Utriusque Juris (both ecclesiastical and civil law).[2]

Ecclesiastical career

On the death of Innocent XII, he was made a consistorial advocate by Clement XI, with whom he worked closely. Shortly after, he was created a Consultor of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, then in 1708, Promoter of the Faith; in 1712 a theologian of canon law and assessor of the Sacred Congregation of Rites; in 1713 he was named monsignor; in 1718 secretary of the Sacred Congregation of the Council; and in 1725, titular bishop of Theodosia.[2]

Lambertini was consecrated a bishop in Rome, in the Pauline Chapel of the Vatican Palace, on 16 July 1724, by Pope Benedict XIII. The co-consecrators were Giovanni Francesco Nicolai, titular Archbishop of Myra (Vicar of the Vatican Basilica), and Nicola Maria Lercari, titular Archbishop of Nazianzus (Papal Maestro di Camera).[3]

He was made Cardinal in pectore in 1726 and Bishop of Ancona in 1727. He was published as Cardinal on 30 April 1728, and was subsequently made the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme on 10 May 1728. He participated in the 1730 conclave, and in 1731 became Archbishop of Bologna.[2]

Other Languages
aragonés: Benedet XIV
asturianu: Benedicto XIV
azərbaycanca: XIV Benedikt
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бэнэдыкт XIV
български: Бенедикт XIV
brezhoneg: Benead XIV
català: Benet XIV
čeština: Benedikt XIV.
español: Benedicto XIV
français: Benoît XIV
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kau-fòng Benedictus 14-sṳ
hornjoserbsce: Benedikt XIV.
hrvatski: Benedikt XIV.
Bahasa Indonesia: Paus Benediktus XIV
ქართული: ბენედიქტე XIV
latviešu: Benedikts XIV
lietuvių: Benediktas XIV
lumbaart: Benedétt XIV
македонски: Папа Бенедикт XIV
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gáu-huòng Benedictus 14-sié
norsk nynorsk: Pave Benedikt XIV
Piemontèis: Benedet XIV
polski: Benedykt XIV
português: Papa Bento XIV
Runa Simi: Binidiktu XIV
русский: Бенедикт XIV
sicilianu: Binidittu XIV
Simple English: Pope Benedict XIV
slovenščina: Papež Benedikt XIV.
српски / srpski: Папа Бенедикт XIV
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Benedikt XIV.
Türkçe: XIV. Benedictus
українська: Бенедикт XIV