Polyphyly

  • cladogram of the primates, showing a monophyly (the simians, in yellow), a paraphyly (the prosimians, in cyan, including the red patch), and a polyphyly (the night-active primates, the lorises and the tarsiers, in red).
    phylogenetic groups: a monophyletic taxon (in yellow, the clade sauropsida grouping "reptiles and birds") contains a common ancestor and all of its descendants. a paraphyletic taxon (in cyan, the "reptiles") contains its most recent common ancestor, but does not contain all the descendants of that ancestor. a polyphyletic taxon (in red, the group haemothermia containing warm-blooded tetrapods) does not contain the most recent common ancestor of all its members.

    a polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor. the term is often applied to groups that share characteristics that appear to be similar but have not been inherited from common ancestors; these characteristics are known as homoplasies, and the development and phenomenon of homoplasies is known as convergent evolution. the arrangement of the members of a polyphyletic group is called a polyphyly.

    alternatively, polyphyletic is simply used to describe a group whose members come from multiple ancestral sources, regardless of similarity of characteristics. for example, the biological characteristic of warm-bloodedness evolved separately in the ancestors of mammals and the ancestors of birds.[1] other polyphyletic groups are for example algae, c4 photosynthetic plants,[2] and edentates.[3]

    many biologists aim to avoid homoplasies in grouping taxa together and therefore it is frequently a goal to eliminate groups that are found to be polyphyletic. this is often the stimulus for major revisions of the classification schemes.

    researchers concerned more with ecology than with systematics may take polyphyletic groups as legitimate subject matter; the similarities in activity within the fungus group alternaria, for example, can lead researchers to regard the group as a valid genus while acknowledging its polyphyly.[4]. in recent research, the concepts of monophyly, paraphyly, and polyphyly have been used in deducing key genes for barcoding of diverse group of species.[5]

  • etymology
  • avoidance
  • polyphyletic species
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Cladogram of the primates, showing a monophyly (the simians, in yellow), a paraphyly (the prosimians, in cyan, including the red patch), and a polyphyly (the night-active primates, the lorises and the tarsiers, in red).
Phylogenetic groups: A monophyletic taxon (in yellow, the clade Sauropsida grouping "reptiles and birds") contains a common ancestor and all of its descendants. A paraphyletic taxon (in cyan, the "reptiles") contains its most recent common ancestor, but does not contain all the descendants of that ancestor. A polyphyletic taxon (in red, the group Haemothermia containing warm-blooded tetrapods) does not contain the most recent common ancestor of all its members.

A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor. The term is often applied to groups that share characteristics that appear to be similar but have not been inherited from common ancestors; these characteristics are known as homoplasies, and the development and phenomenon of homoplasies is known as convergent evolution. The arrangement of the members of a polyphyletic group is called a polyphyly.

Alternatively, polyphyletic is simply used to describe a group whose members come from multiple ancestral sources, regardless of similarity of characteristics. For example, the biological characteristic of warm-bloodedness evolved separately in the ancestors of mammals and the ancestors of birds.[1] Other polyphyletic groups are for example algae, C4 photosynthetic plants,[2] and edentates.[3]

Many biologists aim to avoid homoplasies in grouping taxa together and therefore it is frequently a goal to eliminate groups that are found to be polyphyletic. This is often the stimulus for major revisions of the classification schemes.

Researchers concerned more with ecology than with systematics may take polyphyletic groups as legitimate subject matter; the similarities in activity within the fungus group Alternaria, for example, can lead researchers to regard the group as a valid genus while acknowledging its polyphyly.[4]. In recent research, the concepts of monophyly, paraphyly, and polyphyly have been used in deducing key genes for barcoding of diverse group of species.[5]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Polifileties
العربية: متعددة العرق
Bân-lâm-gú: To-hē-thóng
bosanski: Polifilija
català: Polifiletisme
čeština: Polyfyletismus
español: Polifilético
euskara: Polifiletiko
français: Polyphylie
한국어: 다계통군
Bahasa Indonesia: Polifili
interlingua: Polyphylia
italiano: Polifilia
Limburgs: Polyfylie
日本語: 多系統群
norsk nynorsk: Polyfyletisk gruppe
português: Polifilia
русский: Полифилия
Seeltersk: Polyphylie
Simple English: Polyphyly
српски / srpski: Polifilija
svenska: Polyfyli
українська: Поліфілія
Tiếng Việt: Đa ngành
中文: 多系群