Poland

Republic of Poland

Rzeczpospolita Polska  (Polish)
Anthem: "Mazurek Dąbrowskiego"
(English: "Poland Is Not Yet Lost")
EU-Poland (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Poland.svg
Location of Poland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Location of Poland
Capital
and largest city
Warsaw
52°13′N 21°02′E / 52°13′N 21°02′E / 52.217; 21.033
Official languagesPolish[1]
Recognised regional languageKashubian
Ethnic groups
(2011[2][3][4])
Religion
(2011[5])
Demonym(s)
  • Polish
  • Pole
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential
constitutional republic
• President
Andrzej Duda
Mateusz Morawiecki
LegislatureNational Assembly
Senate
Sejm
Formation
14 April 966
18 April 1025
1 July 1569
24 October 1795
22 July 1807
9 June 1815
11 November 1918
17 September 1939
8 April 1945
13 September 1989
1 May 2004
Area
• Total
312,696[7] km2 (120,733 sq mi)[b] (69th)
• Water (%)
3.07
Population
• 31 December 2017 estimate
Increase 38,433,600[9] (35th)
• Density
123/km2 (318.6/sq mi) (83rd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.281 trillion[10] (22nd)
• Per capita
Increase $33,747[10] (43rd)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $593.295 billion[10] (20th)
• Per capita
Increase $15,629[10] (54th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 27.8[11]
low
HDI (2017)Increase 0.865[12]
very high · 33rd
CurrencyPolish złoty (PLN)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+48
ISO 3166 codePL
Internet TLDpoland.pl

Poland (Polish: Polska [ˈpɔlska] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska[c] [ʐɛt͡ʂpɔˈspɔlita ˈpɔlska] (About this soundlisten)), is a country located in Central Europe.[13] It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate.[8] With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union.[8] Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast to the north, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west.

The history of human activity on Polish soil spans almost 500,000 years. Throughout the Iron Age it became extensively diverse, with various cultures and tribes settling in what was then East Germania. However, it was the Western Polans who dominated the region and gave Poland its name. The establishment of the first Polish state can be traced to AD 966, when Mieszko I,[14] ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin. This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest (1,000,000 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi)) and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system[15][16] which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.

With the passing of prominence and prosperity, the country was partitioned by neighbouring states at the end of the 18th century, and regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. After a series of territorial conflicts, the new multi-ethnic Poland restored its position as a key player in European politics. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Around six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war.[17][18] In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence.[19] In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic.

Poland has a developed market and is a regional power in Central Europe, with the largest Stock Exchange in the East-Central European zone.[20] It has the sixth largest economy by GDP (PPP) in the European Union[21] and one of the most dynamic economies in the world,[22] simultaneously achieving a very high rank on the Human Development Index.[23] Poland is a developed country,[24] which maintains a high-income economy[25] along with very high standards of living, life quality,[26] safety, education, and economic freedom.[27][28] Alongside a developed school educational system, the state also provides free university education, social security, and a universal health care system.[29][30] The country has 16 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 15 of which are cultural.[31]

Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group, and guested at the G20.

Etymology

The origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans (Polanie), who inhabited the Warta river basin of present-day Greater Poland region starting in the mid-6th century. The origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the Proto-Slavic word pole (field). In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian and Turkish, the country's name is derived from the Lendians (Lędzianie or Lachy),[32] a Lechitic tribe, which dwelled on the south-eastern most edge of present-day Lesser Poland, in the Cherven Grods between the 7th and 11th centuries — lands which were part of the territorial domain ruled over by the Polans. Their name derives from the Proto-Slavic and Old Polish word lęda (open land or plain).[33]

Other Languages
Acèh: Polandia
Адыгэбзэ: Полшэ
адыгабзэ: Полшэ
Afrikaans: Pole
Akan: Poland
Alemannisch: Polen
አማርኛ: ፖላንድ
Ænglisc: Polaland
Аҧсшәа: Польша
العربية: بولندا
aragonés: Polonia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܦܘܠܢܕ
armãneashti: Polonia
arpetan: Pologne
অসমীয়া: পোলেণ্ড
asturianu: Polonia
Avañe'ẽ: Polóña
авар: Польша
Aymar aru: Puluña
azərbaycanca: Polşa
تۆرکجه: لهیستان
Banjar: Pulandia
Bân-lâm-gú: Pho-lân
Basa Banyumasan: Polandia
башҡортса: Польша
беларуская: Польшча
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Польшча
भोजपुरी: पोलैंड
Bikol Central: Polonya
Bislama: Poland
български: Полша
Boarisch: Poin
བོད་ཡིག: ཕོ་ལན།
bosanski: Poljska
brezhoneg: Polonia
буряад: Польшо
català: Polònia
Чӑвашла: Польша
Cebuano: Polskowa
čeština: Polsko
Chamoru: Polaki
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Polonia
Chi-Chewa: Poland
chiShona: Poland
chiTumbuka: Poland
corsu: Polonia
Cymraeg: Gwlad Pwyl
dansk: Polen
davvisámegiella: Polska
Deitsch: Polen
Deutsch: Polen
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޕޮލެންޑު
dolnoserbski: Pólska
डोटेली: पोल्याण्ड
ཇོང་ཁ: པོ་ལེནཌི
eesti: Poola
Ελληνικά: Πολωνία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Pulógna
español: Polonia
Esperanto: Pollando
estremeñu: Poloña
euskara: Polonia
eʋegbe: Poland
فارسی: لهستان
Fiji Hindi: Poland
føroyskt: Pólland
français: Pologne
Frysk: Poalen
Fulfulde: Poloonya
furlan: Polonie
Gaeilge: An Pholainn
Gaelg: Yn Pholynn
Gagauz: Polşa
Gàidhlig: A' Phòlainn
galego: Polonia
ГӀалгӀай: Польша
贛語: 波蘭
Gĩkũyũ: Borandi
ગુજરાતી: પોલેંડ
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍀𐌰𐌿𐌻𐌰𐌿𐌽𐌹𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: पोलंड
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pô-làn
хальмг: Польшин Орн
한국어: 폴란드
Hausa: Poland
Hawaiʻi: Pōlani
հայերեն: Լեհաստան
Արեւմտահայերէն: Լեհաստան
हिन्दी: पोलैंड
hornjoserbsce: Pólska
hrvatski: Poljska
Ido: Polonia
Igbo: Poland
Ilokano: Polonia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পোল্যান্ড
Bahasa Indonesia: Polandia
interlingua: Polonia
Interlingue: Polonia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐳᓚᓐᑦ
Iñupiak: Poland
Ирон: Польшæ
isiXhosa: IPoland
isiZulu: IPolandi
íslenska: Pólland
italiano: Polonia
עברית: פולין
Jawa: Polen
Kabɩyɛ: Pɔlɔɔñɩ
kalaallisut: Poleni
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪೋಲೆಂಡ್
Kapampangan: Polonya
къарачай-малкъар: Польша
ქართული: პოლონეთი
kaszëbsczi: Pòlskô
қазақша: Польша
kernowek: Poloni
Kinyarwanda: Polonye
Kirundi: Pologne
Kiswahili: Poland
коми: Польша
Kongo: Pologne
Kreyòl ayisyen: Polòy
kurdî: Polonya
Кыргызча: Польша
кырык мары: Польша
Ladino: Polonia
лакку: Польша
لۊری شومالی: لهستان
latgaļu: Puoleja
Latina: Polonia
latviešu: Polija
Lëtzebuergesch: Polen
лезги: Польша
lietuvių: Lenkija
Ligure: Polonia
Limburgs: Pole
lingála: Poloni
Lingua Franca Nova: Polsca
Livvinkarjala: Pol'šu
la .lojban.: polskas
Luganda: Bupoolo
lumbaart: Polònia
मैथिली: पोल्यान्ड
македонски: Полска
Malagasy: Polonia
മലയാളം: പോളണ്ട്
Malti: Polonja
Māori: Pōrana
मराठी: पोलंड
მარგალური: პოლონეთი
مصرى: بولاندا
مازِرونی: لهستون
Bahasa Melayu: Poland
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Pŏ̤-làng
Mirandés: Polónia
монгол: Польш
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပိုလန်နိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Poran
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Polad
Nederlands: Polen
Nedersaksies: Polen
नेपाली: पोल्याण्ड
नेपाल भाषा: पोल्याण्ड
日本語: ポーランド
Napulitano: Pulonnia
нохчийн: Польша
Nordfriisk: Poolen/fe
Norfuk / Pitkern: Poeland
norsk: Polen
norsk nynorsk: Polen
Nouormand: Polongne
Novial: Polonia
occitan: Polonha
олык марий: Польша
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ପୋଲାଣ୍ଡ
Oromoo: Poolaandi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Polsha
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪੋਲੈਂਡ
पालि: पोलैंड
Pälzisch: Polen
Pangasinan: Polonya
پنجابی: پولینڈ
Papiamentu: Polonia
پښتو: پولنډ
Patois: Puolan
Перем Коми: Польска
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប្រទេសប៉ូឡូញ
Picard: Polonne
Piemontèis: Polònia
Tok Pisin: Polan
Plattdüütsch: Polen
polski: Polska
Ποντιακά: Πολωνία
português: Polónia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Polsha
qırımtatarca: Lehistan
reo tahiti: Pōrana
Ripoarisch: Pole
română: Polonia
romani čhib: Polska
rumantsch: Pologna
Runa Simi: Pulunya
русиньскый: Польско
русский: Польша
саха тыла: Польша
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱯᱳᱞᱮᱱᱰ
Gagana Samoa: Polani
संस्कृतम्: पोलॅण्ड्
Sängö: Pölôni
sardu: Polonia
Scots: Poland
Seeltersk: Polen
Sesotho: Poland
Sesotho sa Leboa: Poland
shqip: Polonia
sicilianu: Pulonia
සිංහල: පෝලන්තය
Simple English: Poland
سنڌي: پولينڊ
SiSwati: IPholandi
slovenčina: Poľsko
slovenščina: Poljska
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Пол҄ьска
ślůnski: Polsko
Soomaaliga: Boland
کوردی: پۆڵەندا
Sranantongo: Polikondre
српски / srpski: Пољска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Poljska
Sunda: Polandia
suomi: Puola
svenska: Polen
Tagalog: Poland
தமிழ்: போலந்து
tarandíne: Pulonie
татарча/tatarça: Польша
తెలుగు: పోలాండ్
tetun: Polónia
тоҷикӣ: Лаҳистон
lea faka-Tonga: Polani
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏉᎳᏂ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Poland
Tshivenda: Poland
Türkçe: Polonya
Türkmençe: Polşa
Twi: Poland
тыва дыл: Польша
удмурт: Польша
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Poland
українська: Польща
اردو: پولستان
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: لەھىستان
Vahcuengh: Bohlanz
vèneto: Połonia
vepsän kel’: Pol'šanma
Tiếng Việt: Ba Lan
Volapük: Polän
Võro: Poola
walon: Pologne
文言: 波蘭
West-Vlams: Pooln
Winaray: Polonya
Wolof: Poloñ
吴语: 波兰
Xitsonga: Polendi
ייִדיש: פוילן
Yorùbá: Pólàndì
粵語: 波蘭
Zazaki: Polonya
Zeêuws: Poôl'n
žemaitėška: Lėnkėjė
中文: 波兰