Planar transmission line

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Printed circuit planar transmission lines used to create filters in a 20 GHz spectrum analyser. The structure on the left is called a hairpin filter and is an example of a band-pass filter. The structure on the right is a stub filter and is a low-pass filter. The perforated regions above and below are not transmission lines, but electromagnetic shielding for the circuit.

Planar transmission lines are transmission lines with conductors, or in some cases dielectric (insulating) strips, that are flat, ribbon-shaped lines. They are used to interconnect components on printed circuits and integrated circuits working at microwave frequencies because the planar type fits in well with the manufacturing methods for these components. Transmission lines are more than simply interconnections. With simple interconnections, the propagation of the electromagnetic wave along the wire is fast enough to be considered instantaneous, and the voltages at each end of the wire can be considered identical. If the wire is longer than a large fraction of a wavelength (one tenth is often used as a rule of thumb), these assumptions are no longer true and transmission line theory must be used instead. With transmission lines, the geometry of the line is precisely controlled (in most cases, the cross-section is kept constant along the length) so that its electrical behaviour is highly predictable. At lower frequencies, these considerations are only necessary for the cables connecting different pieces of equipment, but at microwave frequencies the distance at which transmission line theory becomes necessary is measured in millimetres. Hence, transmission lines are needed within circuits.

The earliest type of planar transmission line was conceived during World War II by Robert M. Barrett. It is known as stripline, and is one of the four main types in modern use, along with microstrip, suspended stripline, and coplanar waveguide. All four of these types consist of a pair of conductors (although in three of them, one of these conductors is the ground plane). Consequently, they have a dominant mode of transmission (the mode is the field pattern of the electromagnetic wave) that is identical, or near-identical, to the mode found in a pair of wires. Other planar types of transmission line, such as slotline, finline, and imageline, transmit along a strip of dielectric, and substrate integrated waveguide forms a dielectric waveguide within the substrate with rows of posts. These types cannot support the same mode as a pair of wires, and consequently they have different transmission properties. Many of these types have a narrower bandwidth and in general produce more signal distortion than pairs of conductors. Their advantages depend on the exact types being compared, but can include low loss and a better range of characteristic impedance.

Planar transmission lines can be used for constructing components as well as interconnecting them. At microwave frequencies it is often the case that individual components in a circuit are themselves larger than a significant fraction of a wavelength. This means they can no longer be treated as lumped components, that is, treated as if they existed at a single point. Lumped passive components are often impractical at microwave frequencies, either for this reason, or because the values required are impractically small to manufacture. A pattern of transmission lines can be used for the same function as these components. Whole circuits, called distributed element circuits, can be built this way. The method is often used for filters. This method is particularly appealing for use with printed and integrated circuits because these structures can be manufactured with the same processes as the rest of the assembly simply by applying patterns to the existing substrate. This gives the planar technologies a big economic advantage over other types, such as coaxial line.

Some authors make a distinction between transmission line, a line that uses a pair of conductors, and waveguide, a line that either does not use conductors at all, or just uses one conductor to constrain the wave in the dielectric. Others use the terms synonymously. This article includes both kinds, so long as they are in a planar form. Names used are the common ones and do not necessarily indicate the number of conductors. The term waveguide when used unadorned, means the hollow, or dielectric filled, metal kind of waveguide, which is not a planar form.

General properties

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An RF power amplifier incorporating planar circuit structures. The amplifier on the left feeds its output into a set of planar transmission line filters in the centre. The third circuit block on the right is a circulator to protect the amplifier from accidental reflections of the power back from the antenna

Planar transmission lines are those transmission lines in which the conductors are essentially flat. The conductors consist of flat strips, and there are usually one or more ground planes parallel to the flat surface of the conductors. The conductors are separated from the ground planes, sometimes with air between them but more often with a solid dielectric material. Transmission lines can also be constructed in non-planar formats such as wires or coaxial line. As well as interconnections, there are a wide range of circuits that can be implemented in transmission lines. These include filters, power dividers, directional couplers, impedance matching networks, and choke circuits to deliver biasing to active components. The principal advantage of the planar types is that they can be manufactured using the same processes used to make printed circuits and integrated circuits, particularly through the photolithography process. The planar technologies are thus particularly well suited to mass production of such components.[1]

Making circuit elements out of transmission lines is most useful at microwave frequencies. At lower frequencies the longer wavelength makes these components too bulky. At the higher microwave frequencies planar transmission line types are generally too lossy and waveguide is used instead. Waveguide, however, is bulkier and more expensive to manufacture. At still higher frequencies dielectric waveguide (such as optical fibre) becomes the technology of choice, but there are planar types of dielectric waveguide available.[2] The most widely used planar transmission lines (of any kind) are stripline, microstrip, suspended stripline, and coplanar waveguide.[3]

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