Pierre Curie

Pierre Curie
Pierre Curie by Dujardin c1906.jpg
Pierre Curie, c. 1906
Born(1859-05-15)15 May 1859
Paris, France
Died19 April 1906(1906-04-19) (aged 46)
Paris, France
Cause of deathFractured skull due to street accident
Alma materUniversity of Paris
Known forRadioactivity
Curie's law
Curie-Weiss law
Curie constant
Curie temperature
Discovery of piezoelectricity
Spouse(s)Marie Skłodowska-Curie (m. 1895)
ChildrenIrène Joliot-Curie
Ève Curie
AwardsDavy Medal (1903)
Nobel Prize in Physics[a] (1903)
Matteucci Medal (1904)
Elliott Cresson Medal (1909)
Scientific career
FieldsPhysics , Chemistry
Doctoral advisorGabriel Lippmann
Doctoral studentsPaul Langevin
André-Louis Debierne
Marguerite Catherine Perey
Pierre Curie signature.svg

Pierre Curie (i/;[1] French: [kyʁi]; 15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. In 1903, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, and Henri Becquerel, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel".[2]

Early life

Born in Paris on 15 May 1859, Pierre Curie was the son of Eugene Curie (28 August 1827 – 25 February 1910), a doctor of Alsatian Protestant origin, and Sophie-Claire Depouilly Curie (15 January 1832 – 27 September 1897). He was educated by his father and in his early teens showed a strong aptitude for mathematics and geometry. When he was 16, he earned his math degree.[clarification needed] By the age of 18, he had completed the equivalent of a higher degree, but did not proceed immediately to a doctorate due to lack of money. Instead he worked as a laboratory instructor.[3] When Pierre Curie was preparing for his bachelor of science degree, he worked in the laboratory of Jean-Gustave Bourbouze in the Faculty of Science.[4]

Pierre and Marie Skłodowska-Curie, 1895

In 1880, Pierre and his older brother Jacques (1856–1941) demonstrated that an electric potential was generated when crystals were compressed, i.e. piezoelectricity.[5] To provide accurate measurements needed for their work, Pierre Curie created a highly sensitive instrument called the Curie scale.[6] He used weights, microscopic meter readers, and pneumatic dampeners to create the scale.[7] Also, to aid their work, they invented the piezoelectric quartz electrometer.[8] Shortly afterwards, in 1881, they demonstrated the reverse effect: that crystals could be made to deform when subject to an electric field.[5] Almost all digital electronic circuits now rely on this in the form of crystal oscillators.[9]

Pierre Curie was introduced to Maria Skłodowska by their friend, physicist Józef Wierusz-Kowalski.[10] Curie took her into his laboratory as his student. His admiration for her grew when he realized that she would not inhibit his research. He began to regard Sklodowska as his muse.[11] She refused his initial proposal, but finally agreed to marry him on 26 July 1895.[3][12]

It would be a beautiful thing, a thing I dare not hope, if we could spend our life near each other, hypnotized by our dreams: your patriotic dream, our humanitarian dream, and our scientific dream. [Pierre Curie to Maria Skłodowska][3]:117

The Curies had a happy, affectionate marriage, and they were known for their devotion to each other.[13]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pierre Curie
العربية: بيار كوري
aragonés: Pierre Curie
armãneashti: Pierre Curie
asturianu: Pierre Curie
azərbaycanca: Pyer Küri
تۆرکجه: پی یر کوری
беларуская: П’ер Кюры
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: П’ер Кюры
български: Пиер Кюри
bosanski: Pierre Curie
català: Pierre Curie
čeština: Pierre Curie
Deutsch: Pierre Curie
Ελληνικά: Πιερ Κιουρί
español: Pierre Curie
Esperanto: Pierre Curie
euskara: Pierre Curie
فارسی: پیر کوری
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한국어: 피에르 퀴리
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italiano: Pierre Curie
עברית: פייר קירי
Basa Jawa: Pierre Curie
ქართული: პიერ კიური
қазақша: Пьер Кюри
Kiswahili: Pierre Curie
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Кыргызча: Кюри Пьер
Latina: Petrus Curie
latviešu: Pjērs Kirī
Lëtzebuergesch: Pierre Curie
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македонски: Пјер Кири
Malagasy: Pierre Curie
მარგალური: პიერ კიური
Bahasa Melayu: Pierre Curie
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပယ်ရီကျူရီ
Nederlands: Pierre Curie
नेपाल भाषा: पिएरे क्युरी
norsk nynorsk: Pierre Curie
occitan: Pierre Curie
Oromoo: Piyeer Kurii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Pierre Curie
پنجابی: پیری کیوری
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ព្យែរ គុយរី
Picard: Pierre Curie
Piemontèis: Pierre Curie
polski: Pierre Curie
português: Pierre Curie
română: Pierre Curie
русский: Кюри, Пьер
संस्कृतम्: पिएरे क्युरी
sicilianu: Pierre Curie
Simple English: Pierre Curie
slovenčina: Pierre Curie
slovenščina: Pierre Curie
کوردی: پیەر کوری
српски / srpski: Пјер Кири
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pierre Curie
svenska: Pierre Curie
Tagalog: Pierre Curie
Türkçe: Pierre Curie
українська: П'єр Кюрі
Tiếng Việt: Pierre Curie
文言: 皮耶居禮
Winaray: Pierre Curie
Yorùbá: Pierre Curie
粵語: 居里
Kabɩyɛ: Pierre Curie