Pierre Curie

Pierre Curie
Pierre Curie by Dujardin c1906.jpg
Born (1859-05-15)15 May 1859
Paris, France
Died 19 April 1906(1906-04-19) (aged 46)
Paris, France
Nationality French
Alma mater University of Paris
Known for Radioactivity
Curie's law
Curie-Weiss law
Curie constant
Curie temperature
Discovery of piezoelectricity
Spouse(s) Marie Skłodowska-Curie (m. 1895)
Children Irène Joliot-Curie
Ève Curie
Awards Davy Medal (1903)
Nobel Prize in Physics [a] (1903)
Matteucci Medal (1904)
Elliott Cresson Medal (1909)
Scientific career
Fields Physics
Doctoral advisor Gabriel Lippmann
Doctoral students Paul Langevin
André-Louis Debierne
Marguerite Catherine Perey
Pierre Curie signature.svg

Pierre Curie ( /; [1] French:  [kyʁi]; 15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. In 1903 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, and Henri Becquerel, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel". [2]

Early life

Born in Paris on 15 May 1859, Pierre Curie was the son of Eugène Curie (28 August 1827 – 25 February 1910) and Sophie-Claire Depouilly Curie (15 January 1832 – 27 September 1897). He was educated by his father, a doctor, and in his early teens showed a strong aptitude for mathematics and geometry. When he was 16, he earned his math degree. By the age of 18 he had completed the equivalent of a higher degree, but did not proceed immediately to a doctorate due to lack of money. Instead he worked as a laboratory instructor. [3] When Pierre Curie was preparing his bachelor of science degree, he worked in the laboratory of Jean-Gustave Bourbouze in the Faculty of Science. [4]

Pierre and Marie Skłodowska-Curie, 1895

In 1880, Pierre and his older brother Jacques (1856–1941) demonstrated that an electric potential was generated when crystals were compressed, i.e. piezoelectricity. [5] To provide accurate measurements needed for their work, Pierre created a highly sensitive instrument called the Curie scale. [6] He used weights, microscopic meter readers, and pneumatic dampeners to create the scale. [7] Also, to aid their work, they invented the piezoelectric quartz electrometer. [8] Shortly afterwards, in 1881, they demonstrated the reverse effect: that crystals could be made to deform when subject to an electric field. [5] Almost all digital electronic circuits now rely on this in the form of crystal oscillators. [9]

Pierre Curie was introduced to Maria Skłodowska by their friend, physicist Józef Wierusz-Kowalski. [10] Pierre took Maria into his laboratory as his student. His admiration for her grew when he realized that she would not inhibit his research. He began to regard her as his muse. [11] She refused his initial proposal, but finally agreed to marry him on 26 July 1895. [3] [12]

It would be a beautiful thing, a thing I dare not hope, if we could spend our life near each other, hypnotized by our dreams: your patriotic dream, our humanitarian dream, and our scientific dream. [Pierre Curie to Maria Skłodowska] [3]:117

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Afrikaans: Pierre Curie
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تۆرکجه: پی یر کوری
беларуская: П'ер Кюры
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မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပယ်ရီကျူရီ
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پنجابی: پیری کیوری
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ព្យែរ គុយរី
Picard: Pierre Curie
Piemontèis: Pierre Curie
polski: Pierre Curie
português: Pierre Curie
română: Pierre Curie
русский: Кюри, Пьер
संस्कृतम्: पिएरे क्युरी
sicilianu: Pierre Curie
Simple English: Pierre Curie
slovenčina: Pierre Curie
slovenščina: Pierre Curie
کوردی: پیەر کوری
српски / srpski: Пјер Кири
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Tagalog: Pierre Curie
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文言: 皮耶居禮
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粵語: 居里
Kabɩyɛ: Pierre Curie