Photography

Photography
Large format camera lens.jpg
Lens and mounting of a large-format camera
Other namesScience or art of creating durable images
TypesRecording light or other electromagnetic radiation
InventorThomas Wedgwood (1800)
RelatedStereoscopic, Full-spectrum, Light field, Electrophotography, Photograms, Scanner

Photography is the art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (e.g., photolithography), and business, as well as its more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication. [1]

Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

Etymology

The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtos), genitive of φῶς (phōs), "light"[2] and γραφή (graphé) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing",[3] together meaning "drawing with light".[4]

Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834.[5] This claim is widely reported but apparently has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt.[citation needed]

The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – especially Henry Fox Talbot's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention.[6][dead link] The article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J.M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler.[7]

Credit has traditionally been given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public. His uses of it in private correspondence prior to 25 February 1839 and at his Royal Society lecture on the subject in London on 14 March 1839 have long been amply documented and accepted as settled facts.[citation needed]

The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography" (Niépce), "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" (Talbot) and "Daguerreotype" (Daguerre).[7]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Fotografie
Alemannisch: Fotografie
aragonés: Fotografía
armãneashti: Futugrâfii
asturianu: Fotografía
azərbaycanca: Fotoqrafiya
bamanankan: Kɔtɛba
Bân-lâm-gú: Hip-siòng
башҡортса: Фотография
беларуская: Фатаграфія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Фатаграфія
български: Фотография
Boarisch: Photographie
bosanski: Fotografija
català: Fotografia
Чӑвашла: Фотографи
čeština: Fotografie
corsu: Fotografia
dansk: Fotografi
Deitsch: Pikder
Deutsch: Fotografie
Ελληνικά: Φωτογραφία
español: Fotografía
Esperanto: Fotarto
estremeñu: Fotografia
euskara: Argazkigintza
فارسی: عکاسی
Fiji Hindi: Photography
français: Photographie
Frysk: Fotografy
furlan: Fotografie
galego: Fotografía
贛語: 拍相
한국어: 사진술
हिन्दी: छायाचित्र
hrvatski: Fotografija
Ilokano: Potograpia
Bahasa Indonesia: Fotografi
interlingua: Photographia
íslenska: Ljósmyndun
italiano: Fotografia
עברית: צילום
Basa Jawa: Fotografi
ქართული: ფოტოგრაფია
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: فَنہِ فوٹوٗ
kaszëbsczi: Fòtografijô
қазақша: Фотография
Kiswahili: Upigaji picha
Kreyòl ayisyen: Fotografi
kurdî: Wêne
Кыргызча: Фотография
Latina: Photographia
latviešu: Fotogrāfija
Lëtzebuergesch: Fotografie
lietuvių: Fotografija
Limburgs: Fotografie
Lingua Franca Nova: Fotografia
lumbaart: Fotografia
македонски: Фотографија
മലയാളം: ഛായാഗ്രഹണം
Bahasa Melayu: Fotografi
монгол: Гэрэл зураг
Nederlands: Fotografie
Nedersaksies: Fotografie
नेपाली: फोटोग्राफी
日本語: 写真
Napulitano: Fotografia
norsk: Fotografi
norsk nynorsk: Fotografi
Nouormand: Photographie
occitan: Fotografia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fotografiya
پنجابی: فوٹوگرافی
Patois: Fotografi
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អ្នកថតរូប
Picard: Fotografie
polski: Fotografia
português: Fotografia
română: Fotografie
русиньскый: Фотоґрафія
русский: Фотография
sardu: Fotografia
Seeltersk: Photographie
shqip: Fotografia
sicilianu: Fotugrafìa
Simple English: Photography
slovenčina: Fotografovanie
slovenščina: Fotografija
کوردی: وێنەگری
српски / srpski: Фотографија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Fotografija
Basa Sunda: Fotografi
suomi: Valokuvaus
svenska: Fotografi
Tagalog: Potograpiya
తెలుగు: ఫోటోగ్రఫీ
українська: Фотографія
اردو: عکاسی
vèneto: Fotografia
Tiếng Việt: Nhiếp ảnh
Võro: Fotokunst
West-Vlams: Fotografie
Winaray: Pagritrato
Wolof: Nataal
吴语: 摄影
ייִדיש: פאטאגראפיע
Yorùbá: Fọ́tòyíyà
粵語: 影相
žemaitėška: Puortėgrapėjė
中文: 摄影