Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in spoken languages and signs in sign languages. It used to be only the study of the systems of phonemes in spoken languages (and therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound or signs are structured to convey linguistic meaning.[1]

Sign languages have a phonological system equivalent to the system of sounds in spoken languages. The building blocks of signs are specifications for movement, location and handshape.[2]


The word 'phonology' (as in the phonology of English) can also refer to the phonological system (sound system) of a given language. This is one of the fundamental systems which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax, its morphology and its vocabulary.

Phonology is often distinguished from phonetics. While phonetics concerns the physical production, acoustic transmission and perception of the sounds of speech,[3][4] phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages to encode meaning. For many linguists, phonetics belongs to descriptive linguistics, and phonology to theoretical linguistics, although establishing the phonological system of a language is necessarily an application of theoretical principles to analysis of phonetic evidence. Note that this distinction was not always made, particularly before the development of the modern concept of the phoneme in the mid 20th century. Some subfields of modern phonology have a crossover with phonetics in descriptive disciplines such as psycholinguistics and speech perception, resulting in specific areas like articulatory phonology or laboratory phonology.

Other Languages
Acèh: Fonologi
Afrikaans: Fonologie
العربية: نطقيات
asturianu: Fonoloxía
беларуская: Фаналогія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Фаналёгія
български: Фонология
bosanski: Fonologija
brezhoneg: Fonologiezh
català: Fonologia
Чӑвашла: Фонологи
čeština: Fonologie
Cymraeg: Ffonoleg
dansk: Fonologi
Deutsch: Phonologie
eesti: Fonoloogia
Ελληνικά: Φωνολογία
español: Fonología
Esperanto: Fonologio
euskara: Fonologia
français: Phonologie
Frysk: Fonology
galego: Fonoloxía
한국어: 음운론
hrvatski: Fonologija
Bahasa Indonesia: Fonologi
interlingua: Phonologia
italiano: Fonologia
עברית: פונולוגיה
Jawa: Fonologi
ქართული: ფონოლოგია
қазақша: Фонология
Kiswahili: Fonolojia
Кыргызча: Фонология
Latina: Phonologia
latviešu: Fonoloģija
Lëtzebuergesch: Phonologie
lietuvių: Fonologija
Limburgs: Fonologie
la .lojban.: snage'a
lumbaart: Funulugia
magyar: Fonológia
македонски: Фонологија
Bahasa Melayu: Fonologi
Nederlands: Fonologie
日本語: 音韻論
norsk: Fonologi
norsk nynorsk: Fonologi
Novial: Fonologia
occitan: Fonologia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fonologiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਧੁਨੀ ਵਿਉਂਤ
Papiamentu: Fonologico
پښتو: غږپوهنه
polski: Fonologia
português: Fonologia
română: Fonologie
rumantsch: Fonologia
русский: Фонология
Seeltersk: Phonologie
shqip: Fonologjia
sicilianu: Fonoluggìa
Simple English: Phonology
سنڌي: صوتيات
slovenčina: Fonológia
slovenščina: Fonologija
کوردی: فۆنۆلۆجی
српски / srpski: Фонологија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Fonologija
suomi: Fonologia
svenska: Fonologi
Tagalog: Ponolohiya
тоҷикӣ: Фонология
Türkçe: Sesbilim
українська: Фонологія
Tiếng Việt: Âm vị học
Winaray: Ponolohiya
吴语: 音位学
粵語: 聲韻學
中文: 音位學