Philology

  • philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics.[1][2][3][page needed] philology is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. a person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist.

    in older usage, especially british, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics.[4][5]

    classical philology studies classical languages. classical philology principally originated from the library of pergamum and the library of alexandria[6] around the fourth century bce, continued by greeks and romans throughout the roman/byzantine empire. it was preserved and promoted during the islamic golden age, and eventually resumed by european scholars of the renaissance, where it was soon joined by philologies of other non-asian (european) (germanic, celtic), eurasian (slavistics, etc.), asian (arabic, persian, sanskrit, chinese, etc.), and african (egyptian, nubian, etc.) languages. indo-european studies involves the comparative philology of all indo-european languages.

    philology, with its focus on historical development (diachronic analysis), is contrasted with linguistics due to ferdinand de saussure's insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis. the contrast continued with the emergence of structuralism and chomskyan linguistics alongside its emphasis on syntax, although research in the field of historical linguistics is often characterized by reliance on philological materials and findings.

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Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics.[1][2][3][page needed] Philology is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist.

In older usage, especially British, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics.[4][5]

Classical philology studies classical languages. Classical philology principally originated from the Library of Pergamum and the Library of Alexandria[6] around the fourth century BCE, continued by Greeks and Romans throughout the Roman/Byzantine Empire. It was preserved and promoted during the Islamic Golden Age, and eventually resumed by European scholars of the Renaissance, where it was soon joined by philologies of other non-Asian (European) (Germanic, Celtic), Eurasian (Slavistics, etc.), Asian (Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Chinese, etc.), and African (Egyptian, Nubian, etc.) languages. Indo-European studies involves the comparative philology of all Indo-European languages.

Philology, with its focus on historical development (diachronic analysis), is contrasted with linguistics due to Ferdinand de Saussure's insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis. The contrast continued with the emergence of structuralism and Chomskyan linguistics alongside its emphasis on syntax, although research in the field of historical linguistics is often characterized by reliance on philological materials and findings.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Filologie
Alemannisch: Philologie
العربية: فقه اللغة
aragonés: Filolochía
asturianu: Filoloxía
azərbaycanca: Filologiya
Bân-lâm-gú: Bûn-hiàn-ha̍k
башҡортса: Филология
беларуская: Філалогія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Філялёгія
български: Филология
català: Filologia
čeština: Filologie
Cymraeg: Ieitheg
dansk: Filologi
Deutsch: Philologie
eesti: Filoloogia
Ελληνικά: Φιλολογία
español: Filología
Esperanto: Filologio
euskara: Filologia
français: Philologie
Frysk: Filology
furlan: Filologjie
Gaeilge: Fileolaíocht
galego: Filoloxía
한국어: 문헌학
hrvatski: Filologija
Bahasa Indonesia: Filologi
interlingua: Philologia
íslenska: Textafræði
italiano: Filologia
עברית: פילולוגיה
Jawa: Filologi
ქართული: ფილოლოგია
қазақша: Филология
kernowek: Phylologyl
kurdî: Fîlolojî
Кыргызча: Филология
Ladino: Filolojiya
Latina: Philologia
latviešu: Filoloģija
lietuvių: Filologija
Lingua Franca Nova: Filolojia
magyar: Filológia
македонски: Филологија
Minangkabau: Filologi
Nederlands: Letterkunde
日本語: 文献学
norsk: Filologi
norsk nynorsk: Filologi
occitan: Filologia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Filologiya
Piemontèis: Filologìa
Plattdüütsch: Philologie
polski: Filologia
português: Filologia
română: Filologie
русиньскый: Филология
русский: Филология
саха тыла: Филология
shqip: Filologjia
Simple English: Philology
slovenčina: Filológia
slovenščina: Filologija
српски / srpski: Филологија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Filologija
Sunda: Filologi
suomi: Filologia
svenska: Filologi
татарча/tatarça: Филология
тоҷикӣ: Филология
Türkçe: Filoloji
українська: Філологія
Tiếng Việt: Bác ngữ học
West-Vlams: Filologie
Winaray: Pilolohiya
吴语: 语文学
Zazaki: Filolociye
中文: 语文学