Republic of Peru

República del Perú  (Spanish)
"Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish)
"Firm and Happy for the Union"
"Himno Nacional de Perú"  (Spanish)
"National Anthem of Peru"

National seal
Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg
Gran Sello del Estado  (Spanish)
Great Seal of the State
PER orthographic.svg
Location of Peru
and largest city
12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / -12.0433; -77.0283
Official languageSpanish
Co-official languages[a]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic[1][2]
• President
Martín Vizcarra
Mercedes Aráoz
César Villanueva
LegislatureCongress of the Republic
Independence from the Kingdom of Spain
• Declared
28 July 1821
9 December 1824
• Recognized
14 August 1879
• Total
1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi) (19th)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
32,162,184[3] (43rd)
• 2017 census
• Density
23/km2 (59.6/sq mi) (198th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$458.389 billion[4] (36th)
• Per capita
$14,252[4] (85th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$228.944 billion[4] (41nd)
• Per capita
$7,118[4] (80nd)
Gini (2016)Negative increase 43.8[5]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.750[6]
high · 89th
CurrencySol (PEN)
Time zoneUTC−5 (PET)
Date (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+51
ISO 3166 codePE

Peru (/ (About this soundlisten); Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu]; Quechua: Piruw Republika [pʰɪɾʊw];[7] Aymara: Piruw Suyu [pɪɾʊw]), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: About this soundRepública del Perú ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.[8]

Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures, ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima. Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990; his government was credited with economically stabilizing Peru and successfully ending the Shining Path insurgency, though he was widely accused of human rights violations and suppression of political dissent. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. Even after the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power, even causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018.

The sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market[9] with a high level of human development[10] and an upper middle income level[11] with a poverty rate around 19 percent.[12] It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9%[12] and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%.[13] Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing; along with other growing sectors such as telecommunications and biotechnology.[14] The country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom[15] and it has the third lowest homicide rate in South America; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power.[16]

Peru has a multiethnic population of 32 million,[17] which includes Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua, Aymara or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.


The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.[18] When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans.[19] Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú.[20]

An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador. He said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, and went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language.[21]

The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.[22] Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence.

Other Languages
Acèh: Pèru
адыгабзэ: Перу
Afrikaans: Peru
Akan: Peru
Alemannisch: Peru
አማርኛ: ፔሩ
Ænglisc: Peru
Аҧсшәа: Перу
العربية: بيرو
aragonés: Perú
arpetan: Pèrou
asturianu: Perú
Avañe'ẽ: Perũ
Aymar aru: Piruw
azərbaycanca: Peru
تۆرکجه: پرو
bamanankan: Peru
বাংলা: পেরু
Bân-lâm-gú: Peru
башҡортса: Перу
беларуская: Перу
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пэру
भोजपुरी: पेरू
Bikol Central: Peru
Bislama: Peru
български: Перу
Boarisch: Peru
བོད་ཡིག: པེ་རུ།
bosanski: Peru
brezhoneg: Perou
буряад: Перу
català: Perú
Чӑвашла: Перу
Cebuano: Peru
čeština: Peru
Chamoru: Perú
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Peru
chiShona: Peru
corsu: Perù
Cymraeg: Periw
dansk: Peru
davvisámegiella: Peru
Deutsch: Peru
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޕެރޫ
Diné bizaad: Dibénééz Bikéyah
dolnoserbski: Peru
डोटेली: पेरू
eesti: Peruu
Ελληνικά: Περού
español: Perú
Esperanto: Peruo
estremeñu: Perú
euskara: Peru
eʋegbe: Peru
فارسی: پرو
Fiji Hindi: Peru
føroyskt: Peru
français: Pérou
Frysk: Perû
Fulfulde: Peru
Gaeilge: Peiriú
Gaelg: Yn Pheroo
Gagauz: Peru
Gàidhlig: Pearù
galego: Perú
Gĩkũyũ: Peru
ગુજરાતી: પેરુ (દેશ)
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍀𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌿
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: पेरू
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Peru
한국어: 페루
Hausa: Peru
հայերեն: Պերու
हिन्दी: पेरू
hornjoserbsce: Peru
hrvatski: Peru
Ido: Peru
Igbo: Peru
Ilokano: Peru
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পেরু
Bahasa Indonesia: Peru
interlingua: Peru
Interlingue: Perú
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐱᕉ
Ирон: Перу
isiZulu: Peru
íslenska: Perú
italiano: Perù
עברית: פרו
Basa Jawa: Peru
Kabɩyɛ: Peruu
kalaallisut: Peru
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪೆರು
Kapampangan: Peru
ქართული: პერუ
қазақша: Перу
kernowek: Perou
Kinyarwanda: Peru
Kiswahili: Peru
коми: Перу
Kongo: Peru
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pewou
kurdî: Perû
Кыргызча: Перу
кырык мары: Перу
Ladino: Peru
لۊری شومالی: پرۊ
latgaļu: Peru
Latina: Peruvia
latviešu: Peru
Lëtzebuergesch: Peru
лезги: Перу
lietuvių: Peru
Ligure: Perù
Limburgs: Peru
lingála: Peru
Lingua Franca Nova: Peru
Livvinkarjala: Peru
la .lojban.: perus
Luganda: Peru
lumbaart: Perù
magyar: Peru
македонски: Перу
Malagasy: Però
മലയാളം: പെറു
Malti: Perù
Māori: Perū
मराठी: पेरू
მარგალური: პერუ
مصرى: بيرو
مازِرونی: پرو
Bahasa Melayu: Peru
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Peru
Mirandés: Peru
монгол: Перу
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပီရူးနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Peru
Dorerin Naoero: Peru
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Peru
Nederlands: Peru
नेपाली: पेरू
नेपाल भाषा: पेरु
日本語: ペルー
Napulitano: Perù
нохчийн: Перу
Nordfriisk: Peruu
Norfuk / Pitkern: Peruu
norsk: Peru
norsk nynorsk: Peru
Nouormand: Pérou
Novial: Peru
occitan: Peró
олык марий: Перу
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ପେରୁ
Oromoo: Peeruu
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Peru
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪੇਰੂ
पालि: पेरु
Pangasinan: Peru
پنجابی: پیرو
Papiamentu: Peru
پښتو: پيرو
Patois: Peruu
Piemontèis: Perù
Tok Pisin: Peru
Plattdüütsch: Peru
polski: Peru
português: Peru
Qaraqalpaqsha: Peru
qırımtatarca: Peru
română: Peru
Romani: Peru
rumantsch: Peru
Runa Simi: Piruw
русиньскый: Перу
русский: Перу
саха тыла: Перу
Gagana Samoa: Peru
संस्कृतम्: पेरु
sardu: Perù
Scots: Peru
Seeltersk: Peru
Sesotho sa Leboa: Peru
shqip: Peruja
sicilianu: Perù
සිංහල: පේරූ
Simple English: Peru
SiSwati: IPheru
slovenčina: Peru
slovenščina: Peru
ślůnski: Peru
Soomaaliga: Peru
کوردی: پێروو
српски / srpski: Перу
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Peru
Basa Sunda: Péru
suomi: Peru
svenska: Peru
Tagalog: Peru
தமிழ்: பெரு
татарча/tatarça: Перу
తెలుగు: పెరూ
tetun: Perú
тоҷикӣ: Перу
Türkçe: Peru
Türkmençe: Peru
українська: Перу
اردو: پیرو
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پېرۇ
Vahcuengh: Peru
vèneto: Perù
vepsän kel’: Peru
Tiếng Việt: Peru
Volapük: Peruvän
Võro: Peruu
walon: Perou
文言: 秘魯
Winaray: Perú
Wolof: Peru
吴语: 秘鲁
ייִדיש: פערו
Yorùbá: Perú
粵語: 秘魯
Zazaki: Peru
Zeêuws: Peru
žemaitėška: Perū
中文: 秘鲁