Persian language

Persian
Fārsi
فارسی
Farsi.svg
Fārsi written in Persian ( Nastaʿlīq script)
Pronunciation [fɒːɾˈsiː]
Native to
Native speakers
45 million (2007) [6] – 60 million (2009) [5]
(110 million total speakers) [5]
Indo-European
Early forms
Standard forms
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
Regulated by
Language codes
ISO 639-1 fa
ISO 639-2 per (B)
fas (T)
ISO 639-3 fasinclusive code
Individual codes:
pes –  Western Persian
prs –  Dari language (Afghan Persian)
tgk –  Tajiki
aiq –  Aimaq dialect
bhh –  Bukhori dialect
haz –  Hazaragi dialect
jpr –  Judeo-Persian
phv –  Pahlavani
deh –  Dehwari
jdt –  Judeo-Tat
ttt –  Caucasian Tat
Glottolog fars1254 [7]
Linguasphere
58-AAC (Wider Persian)
 > 58-AAC-c (Central Persian)
Persian Language Location Map1.png
Areas with significant numbers of Persian speakers (including dialects)
Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan.svg
  Countries where Persian is an official language
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Persian ( ən/ or ən/), also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( About this sound  listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan (officially known as Dari since 1958), [8] and Tajikistan (officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era), [9] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

The Persian language is classified as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid Empire. [10] [11] [12] Its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages. [13] Persian gets its name from its origin at the capital of the Achaemenid Empire, Persis (modern-day Fars Province), hence the name Persian (Farsi). [14] A Persian-speaking person may be referred to as Persophone. [15]

There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. For centuries, Persian has also been a prestigious cultural language in other regions of Western Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia by the various empires based in the regions. [16]

Persian has had a considerable (mainly lexical) influence on neighboring languages, particularly the Turkic languages in Central Asia, Caucasus, and Anatolia, neighboring Iranian languages, as well as Armenian, Georgian, and Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu (a register of Hindustani). It also exerted some influence on Arabic, particularly Bahrani Arabic, [17] while borrowing much vocabulary from it after the Arab conquest of Iran. [10] [13] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]

With a long history of literature in the form of Middle Persian before Islam, Persian was the first language in the Muslim world to break through Arabic's monopoly on writing, and the writing of poetry in Persian was established as a court tradition in many eastern courts. [16] Some of the famous works of Persian literature are the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the works of Rumi, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Panj Ganj of Nizami Ganjavi, the Divān of Hafez and the two miscellanea of prose and verse by Saadi Shirazi, the Gulistan and the Bustan.

Classification

Persian is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-European family. Other Western Iranian languages are the Kurdish languages, Gilaki, Mazanderani, Talysh, and Balochi. Persian is classified as a member of the Southwestern subgroup within Western Iranian along with Lari, Kumzari, and Luri. [23]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Парсыбзэ
Afrikaans: Persies
Alemannisch: Persische Sprache
አማርኛ: ፋርስኛ
العربية: لغة فارسية
aragonés: Idioma persa
asturianu: Persa
azərbaycanca: Fars dili
تۆرکجه: فارس دیلی
Bân-lâm-gú: Pho-su-gí
башҡортса: Фарсы теле
беларуская: Персідская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пэрсыдзкая мова
भोजपुरी: फ़ारसी भाषा
български: Персийски език
Boarisch: Persisch
bosanski: Perzijski jezik
brezhoneg: Perseg
català: Persa
Чӑвашла: Перс чĕлхи
čeština: Perština
Cymraeg: Perseg
davvisámegiella: Persiagiella
ދިވެހިބަސް: ފާރިސީ
dolnoserbski: Persišćina
Ελληνικά: Περσική γλώσσα
español: Idioma persa
Esperanto: Persa lingvo
euskara: Persiera
Fiji Hindi: Farsi bhasa
français: Persan
Frysk: Perzysk
Gaeilge: An Pheirsis
galego: Lingua persa
贛語: 波斯語
ગુજરાતી: ફારસી ભાષા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pô-sṳ̂-ngî
한국어: 페르시아어
Հայերեն: Պարսկերեն
hornjoserbsce: Persišćina
hrvatski: Perzijski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Persia
íslenska: Persneska
italiano: Lingua persiana
עברית: פרסית
Basa Jawa: Basa Pèrsi
kalaallisut: Farsimiutut
ქართული: სპარსული ენა
қазақша: Парсы тілі
kernowek: Persek
Kiswahili: Kiajemi
коми: Фарси
лезги: Фарси
latviešu: Persiešu valoda
lietuvių: Persų kalba
Ligure: Lengua farsi
Limburgs: Perzisch
lumbaart: Lengua persiana
македонски: Персиски јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny persana
Māori: Reo Farsi
მარგალური: სპარსული ნინა
مصرى: فارسى
مازِرونی: فارسی
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Parsi
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Pŏ̤-sṳ̆-ngṳ̄
монгол: Перс хэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပါရှားဘာသာစကား
Nederlands: Perzisch
नेपाली: फारसी भाषा
नेपाल भाषा: पारसी भाषा
日本語: ペルシア語
Nordfriisk: Persisk spriak
norsk: Persisk
norsk nynorsk: Persisk
occitan: Persan
олык марий: Фарси йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fors tili
پنجابی: فارسی
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាពែក
Tok Pisin: Tokples Pesia
português: Língua persa
română: Limba persană
Runa Simi: Pharsi simi
русиньскый: Перьскый язык
саха тыла: Перс тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'aPeresia
Simple English: Persian language
slovenčina: Perzské jazyky
slovenščina: Perzijščina
ślůnski: Perskŏ gŏdka
Soomaaliga: Af-Faarisi
српски / srpski: Персијски језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Perzijski jezik
Basa Sunda: Basa Pérsia
svenska: Persiska
tarandíne: Lènga persiane
татарча/tatarça: Фарсы теле
Türkçe: Farsça
Türkmençe: Farsi diller
українська: Перська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: پارس تىلى
vèneto: Lengua farsi
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Ba Tư
Volapük: Pärsänapük
文言: 波斯語
Winaray: Pinersyano
ייִדיש: פערסיש
粵語: 波斯文
Zazaki: Farski
žemaitėška: Persu kalba
中文: 波斯语