Patent

A patent is a form of intellectual property. A patent gives its owner the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, and importing an invention for a limited period of time, usually twenty years. The patent rights are granted in exchange for an enabling public disclosure of the invention. People who are employed to do research are often obligated by their employment contracts to assign inventions to their employer. In most countries patent rights fall under civil law and the patent holder needs to sue someone infringing the patent in order to enforce their rights. In some industries patents are an essential form of competitive advantage; in others they are irrelevant.[1]:17

The procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a granted patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims, each of which defines a specific property right. These claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty, usefulness, and non-obviousness.[2][3]

Under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) TRIPS Agreement, patents should be available in WTO member states for any invention, in all fields of technology, provided they are new, involve an inventive step, and are capable of industrial application.[4] Nevertheless, there are variations on what is patentable subject matter from country to country, also among WTO member states. TRIPS also provides that the term of protection available should be a minimum of twenty years.[5]

Definition

The word patent originates from the Latin patere, which means "to lay open" (i.e., to make available for public inspection). It is a shortened version of the term letters patent, which was an open document or instrument issued by a monarch or government granting exclusive rights to a person, predating the modern patent system. Similar grants included land patents, which were land grants by early state governments in the USA, and printing patents, a precursor of modern copyright.

In modern usage, the term patent usually refers to the right granted to anyone who invents something new, useful and non-obvious. Some other types of intellectual property rights are also called patents in some jurisdictions: industrial design rights are called design patents in the US,[6] plant breeders' rights are sometimes called plant patents,[7] and utility models and Gebrauchsmuster are sometimes called petty patents or innovation patents.

The additional qualification utility patent is sometimes used (primarily in the US) to distinguish the primary meaning from these other types of patents. Particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents and software patents.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Patent
Ænglisc: Sweotolgewrit
العربية: براءة اختراع
অসমীয়া: পেটেন্ট
asturianu: Patente
azərbaycanca: Patent
বাংলা: পেটেন্ট
беларуская: Патэнт
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Патэнт
български: Патент
Boarisch: Patent
català: Patent
čeština: Patent
Cymraeg: Breinlen
dansk: Patent
Deutsch: Patent
eesti: Patent
Ελληνικά: Ευρεσιτεχνία
español: Patente
Esperanto: Patento
euskara: Patente
français: Brevet
Frysk: Oktroai
Gaeilge: Paitinn
galego: Patente
ગુજરાતી: પેટન્ટ
한국어: 특허
हिन्दी: पेटेण्ट
hrvatski: Patent
Ido: Patento
Bahasa Indonesia: Paten
íslenska: Einkaleyfi
italiano: Brevetto
עברית: פטנט
ქართული: პატენტი
қазақша: Патент
latviešu: Patents
lietuvių: Patentas
Limburgs: Oktroeaj
magyar: Találmány
македонски: Патент
मराठी: एकस्व
Bahasa Melayu: Paten
монгол: Патент
Nederlands: Octrooi
日本語: 特許
norsk: Patent
norsk nynorsk: Patent
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Patent
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪੇਟੈਂਟ
polski: Patent
português: Patente
русский: Патент
Scots: Patent
Simple English: Patent
slovenščina: Patent
српски / srpski: Патент
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Patent
suomi: Patentti
svenska: Patent
Tagalog: Patente
татарча/tatarça: Патент
Türkçe: Patent
українська: Патент
اردو: براءت
Tiếng Việt: Bằng sáng chế
吴语: 专利
粵語: 專利
中文: 专利