This article is about the country. For other uses, see Pakistan (disambiguation).

Islamic Republic of Pakistan
اسلامی جمہوریہ پاكستان ( Urdu)
Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān [1]
Flag of Pakistan
Emblem of Pakistan
Flag Emblem
Motto:  Īmān, Ittiḥād, Naẓm
ایمان، اتحاد، نظم (Urdu)
"Faith, Unity, Discipline"  [2]
Anthem:  Qaumī Tarānah
قومی ترانہ
"The National Anthem" [3]
Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled region shown in light green.
Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled region shown in light green.
Capital Islamabad
33°40′N 73°10′E / 33°40′N 73°10′E / 33.667; 73.167
Largest city Karachi
24°51′36″N 67°00′36″E / 24°51′36″N 67°00′36″E / 24.86000; 67.01000
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups (2016) 44.68% Punjabis
15.42% Pashtuns
14.1% Sindhis
8.38% Saraikis
7.57% Muhajirs
3.57% Balochis
6.28% Others [11]
Religion 96.4% Islam (Official) [12]
3.6% others [11]
Demonym Pakistani
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional republic
•  President
Mamnoon Hussain
Nawaz Sharif
Raza Rabbani
Sardar Ayaz Sadiq
Mian Saqib Nisar
Legislature Parliament
National Assembly
Independence from the United Kingdom
29 December 1930
28 January 1933
23 March 1940
•  Dominion
14 August 1947
23 March 1956
• Total
881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi) [a] [15] ( 33rd)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
201,995,540 [11] ( 6th)
• Density
244.4/km2 (633.0/sq mi) ( 56th)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$1.059 trillion [16] ( 25th)
• Per capita
$5,402 [16] ( 137th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
• Total
$271.050 billion [16] ( 43rd)
• Per capita
$1,427 [16] ( 144th)
Gini (2013) 30.7 [17]
HDI (2015) Steady 0.550 [18]
medium ·  147th
Currency Pakistani rupee (₨) ( PKR)
Time zone PST ( UTC+5b)
Drives on the left [19]
Calling code +92
ISO 3166 code PK
Internet TLD .pk

Pakistan ( Listen i n/ or Listen i n/; Urdu: پاکستان‎), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a federal parliamentary republic in South Asia on the crossroads of Central Asia and Western Asia. It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 200 million people. [11] In terms of area, it is the 33rd-largest country in the world with an area covering 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre-long (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast, respectively. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

The territory that now constitutes Pakistan is considered a cradle of civilization [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] that was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans, and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander of Macedonia, the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire, and most recently, the British Empire.

Pakistan is unique among Muslim countries in that it is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. [25] [26] As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the subcontinent's struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent homeland for South Asian Muslims. [27] It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similarly diverse geography and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973 Pakistan adopted a new constitution establishing, alongside its pre-existing parliamentary republic status, a federal government based in Islamabad consisting of four provinces and four federal territories. The new constitution also stipulated that all laws were to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. [28]

A regional [29] [30] [31] and middle power, [32] [33] [34] Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, being the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector, and a growing services sector. [35] [36] The Pakistani economy is the 24th-largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and the 41st-largest in terms of nominal GDP (World Bank). It is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, [37] [38] and is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle classes. [39] [40]

The post-independence history of Pakistan has been characterised by periods of military rule, and since 2008 a transition to democracy, amid conflicts with neighbouring India. The country continues to face challenging problems such as illiteracy, healthcare, and corruption, but has substantially reduced poverty [41] and terrorism [42] and expanded per capita income. [43] Pakistan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the ECO, the SAARC, the Developing Eight, and the G20 developing nations, Group of 24, Group of 77, and ECOSOC. It is also an associate member of CERN. Pakistan is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.


The name Pakistan literally means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It is a play on the word pāk meaning pure in Persian and Pashto; [44] the suffix -stān is a Persian word meaning place of, cognate with the Sanskrit word sthāna ( Devanagari: स्थान [st̪ʰaːnə]). [45]

The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, [46] using it as an acronym ("thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN") referring to the names of the five northern regions of the British Raj: Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan. [47] [48] [49] The letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation and form the linguistically correct and meaningful name. [50]

Other Languages
Acèh: Pakistan
Адыгэбзэ: Пакистэн
адыгабзэ: Пакистан
Afrikaans: Pakistan
Alemannisch: Pakistan
አማርኛ: ፓኪስታን
Ænglisc: Pacistan
العربية: باكستان
aragonés: Pakistán
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܦܐܩܣܛܐܢ
arpetan: Paquistan
অসমীয়া: পাকিস্তান
asturianu: Pakistán
Avañe'ẽ: Pakistán
azərbaycanca: Pakistan
تۆرکجه: پاکیستان
Bahasa Banjar: Pakistan
Bân-lâm-gú: Pakistan
башҡортса: Пакистан
беларуская: Пакістан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пакістан
भोजपुरी: पाकिस्तान
Bikol Central: Pakistan
български: Пакистан
Boarisch: Pakistan
བོད་ཡིག: པ་ཀི་སི་ཐན
bosanski: Pakistan
brezhoneg: Pakistan
буряад: Пакистан
català: Pakistan
Чӑвашла: Пакистан
Cebuano: Pakistan
čeština: Pákistán
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Pakistan
chiShona: Pakistan
chiTumbuka: Pakistan
Cymraeg: Pacistan
dansk: Pakistan
Deitsch: Pakistan
Deutsch: Pakistan
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޕާކިސްތާން
dolnoserbski: Pakistan
eesti: Pakistan
Ελληνικά: Πακιστάν
español: Pakistán
Esperanto: Pakistano
estremeñu: Paquistán
euskara: Pakistan
فارسی: پاکستان
Fiji Hindi: Pakistan
føroyskt: Pakistan
français: Pakistan
Frysk: Pakistan
Gagauz: Pakistan
Gàidhlig: Pagastàn
galego: Paquistán
贛語: 巴基斯坦
Gĩkũyũ: Pakistan
ગુજરાતી: પાકિસ્તાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: पाकिस्तान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pakistan
한국어: 파키스탄
Hausa: Pakistan
Hawaiʻi: Pakitana
Հայերեն: Պակիստան
हिन्दी: पाकिस्तान
hornjoserbsce: Pakistan
hrvatski: Pakistan
Ilokano: Pakistan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পাকিস্তান
Bahasa Indonesia: Pakistan
interlingua: Pakistan
Interlingue: Pakistan
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐸᑭᔅᑕᓐ
isiZulu: IPakistani
íslenska: Pakistan
italiano: Pakistan
עברית: פקיסטן
Basa Jawa: Pakistan
kalaallisut: Pakistan
Kapampangan: Pakistan
ქართული: პაკისტანი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: پاکِستان
kaszëbsczi: Pakistan
қазақша: Пәкістан
kernowek: Pakistan
Kinyarwanda: Pakisitani
Kiswahili: Pakistan
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pakistan
Kurdî: Pakistan
Кыргызча: Пакистан
Ladino: Pakistan
лезги: Пакистан
لۊری شومالی: پاکئستان
Latina: Pakistania
latviešu: Pakistāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Pakistan
lietuvių: Pakistanas
Ligure: Pakistan
Limburgs: Pakistan
lingála: Pakistáni
Livvinkarjala: Pakistuanu
la .lojban.: kisygu'e
lumbaart: Pakistan
magyar: Pakisztán
मैथिली: पाकिस्तान
македонски: Пакистан
Malagasy: Pakistan
മലയാളം: പാകിസ്താൻ
Malti: Pakistan
Māori: Pakitāne
მარგალური: პაკისტანი
مصرى: باكستان
مازِرونی: پاکستون
Bahasa Melayu: Pakistan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Pakistan
Mirandés: Paquistan
мокшень: Пакистан
монгол: Пакистан
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပါကစ္စတန်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Paquistan
Dorerin Naoero: Pakistan
Nederlands: Pakistan
Nedersaksies: Pakistan
नेपाली: पाकिस्तान
नेपाल भाषा: पाकिस्तान
日本語: パキスタン
Napulitano: Pakistan
нохчийн: Пакистан
Nordfriisk: Pakistan
Norfuk / Pitkern: Pakistaan
norsk bokmål: Pakistan
norsk nynorsk: Pakistan
Novial: Pakistan
occitan: Paquistan
олык марий: Пакистан
Oromoo: Paakistaan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Pokiston
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ
پنجابی: پاکستان
Papiamentu: Pakistan
پښتو: پاکستان
Patois: Pakistan
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប៉ាគីស្ថាន
Piemontèis: Pakistan
Tok Pisin: Pakistan
Plattdüütsch: Pakistan
polski: Pakistan
português: Paquistão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Pakistan
qırımtatarca: Pakistan
română: Pakistan
Romani: Pakistan
Runa Simi: Pakistan
русиньскый: Пакістан
русский: Пакистан
саха тыла: Пакистан
sámegiella: Pakistan
Gagana Samoa: Pakisitana
संस्कृतम्: पाकिस्थानम्
Scots: Pakistan
Seeltersk: Pakistan
Sesotho sa Leboa: Pakistan
shqip: Pakistani
sicilianu: Pakistan
Simple English: Pakistan
سنڌي: پاڪستان
SiSwati: IPhakhistani
slovenčina: Pakistan
slovenščina: Pakistan
ślůnski: Pakistan
Soomaaliga: Bakistaan
کوردیی ناوەندی: پاکستان
Sranantongo: Pakistan
српски / srpski: Пакистан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pakistan
Basa Sunda: Pakistan
suomi: Pakistan
svenska: Pakistan
Tagalog: Pakistan
Taqbaylit: Pakistan
tarandíne: Pakistan
తెలుగు: పాకిస్తాన్
tetun: Pakistaun
тоҷикӣ: Покистон
Türkçe: Pakistan
Türkmençe: Päkistan
удмурт: Пакистан
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Pakistan
українська: Пакистан
اردو: پاکستان
Vahcuengh: Pakistan
vèneto: Pakistan
vepsän kel’: Pakistan
Tiếng Việt: Pakistan
Volapük: Pakistän
Võro: Pakistan
walon: Pakistan
文言: 巴基斯坦
West-Vlams: Pakistan
Winaray: Pakistan
Wolof: Pakistaan
吴语: 巴基斯坦
ייִדיש: פאקיסטאן
Yorùbá: Pakístàn
粵語: 巴基斯坦
Zazaki: Pakıstan
Zeêuws: Pakistan
žemaitėška: Pakėstans
中文: 巴基斯坦