Oxfordshire

Oxfordshire
County
Flag of Oxfordshire.svg
Flag
Motto: Sapere Aude
('Dare to be Wise')[1]
Map of Oxfordshire.
Oxfordshire in England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Country England
RegionSouth East England
Ceremonial county
Area2,605 km2 (1,006 sq mi)
 • Ranked22nd of 48
Population (mid-2017 est.)682,400
 • Ranked35th of 48
Density261/km2 (680/sq mi)
Ethnicity95.1% White - 1.7% S. Asian
Non-metropolitan county
County councilOxfordshire county council logo.jpg Oxfordshire County Council [2]
ExecutiveConservative
Admin HQOxford
Area2,605 km2 (1,006 sq mi)
 • Ranked19th of 27
Population682,400
 • Ranked17th of 27
Density261/km2 (680/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2GB-OXF
ONS code38
NUTSUKJ14
Oxfordshire numbered districts.svg
Districts of Oxfordshire
Districts
  1. City of Oxford
  2. Cherwell
  3. South Oxfordshire
  4. Vale of White Horse
  5. West Oxfordshire
Members of Parliament
Time zoneGreenwich Mean Time (UTC)
 • Summer (DST)British Summer Time (UTC+1)

Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from Oxonium, the Latin name for Oxford) is a county in South East England. The ceremonial county borders Warwickshire to the north-west, Northamptonshire to the north-east, Buckinghamshire to the east, Berkshire to the south, Wiltshire to the south-west and Gloucestershire to the west.

The county has major education and tourist industries and is noted for the concentration of performance motorsport companies and facilities. Oxford University Press is the largest firm among a concentration of print and publishing firms; the University of Oxford is also linked to the concentration of local biotechnology companies.

As well as the city of Oxford, other centres of population are Banbury, Bicester, Kidlington and Chipping Norton to the north of Oxford; Carterton and Witney to the west; Thame and Chinnor to the east; and Abingdon, Wantage, Didcot, Wallingford and Henley-on-Thames to the south. The areas south of the Thames, the Vale of White Horse and parts of South Oxfordshire, are in the historic county of Berkshire, as is the highest point, the 261 metres (856 ft) White Horse Hill.[3]

Oxfordshire's county flower is the snake's-head fritillary.[4]

History

Oxfordshire was recorded as a county in the early years of the 10th century and lies between the River Thames to the south, the Cotswolds to the west, the Chilterns to the east and the Midlands to the north, with spurs running south to Henley-on-Thames and north to Banbury.

Although it had some significance as an area of valuable agricultural land in the centre of the country, it was largely ignored by the Romans, and did not grow in importance until the formation of a settlement at Oxford in the 8th century. Alfred the Great was born across the Thames in Wantage, Vale of White Horse. The University of Oxford was founded in 1096, though its collegiate structure did not develop until later on. The university in the county town of Oxford (whose name came from Anglo-Saxon Oxenaford = "ford for oxen") grew in importance during the Middle Ages and early modern period. The area was part of the Cotswolds wool trade from the 13th century, generating much wealth, particularly in the western portions of the county in the Oxfordshire Cotswolds. Morris Motors was founded in Oxford in 1912, bringing heavy industry to an otherwise agricultural county. The importance of agriculture as an employer has declined rapidly in the 20th century though; currently under one percent of the county's population are involved due to high mechanisation. Nonetheless, Oxfordshire remains a very agricultural county by land use, with a lower population than neighbouring Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, which are both smaller.

Throughout most of its history the county was divided into fourteen hundreds, namely Bampton, Banbury, Binfield, Bloxham, Bullingdon, Chadlington, Dorchester, Ewelme, Langtree, Lewknor, Pyrton, Ploughley, Thame and Wootton.

The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, the main army unit in the area, was based at Cowley Barracks on Bullingdon Green, Cowley.

The Vale of White Horse district and parts of the South Oxfordshire administrative district south of the River Thames were historically part of Berkshire, but in 1974 Abingdon, Didcot, Faringdon, Wallingford and Wantage were added to the administrative county of Oxfordshire under the Local Government Act 1972. Conversely, the Caversham area of Reading, now administratively in Berkshire, was historically part of Oxfordshire as was the parish of Stokenchurch, now administratively in Buckinghamshire.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Oxfordshire
Ænglisc: Oxnafordscīr
العربية: أكسفوردشير
aragonés: Oxfordshire
asturianu: Oxfordshire
Bân-lâm-gú: Oxfordshire
беларуская: Оксфардшыр
български: Оксфордшър
brezhoneg: Oxfordshire
català: Oxfordshire
Cebuano: Oxfordshire
čeština: Oxfordshire
Deutsch: Oxfordshire
español: Oxfordshire
Esperanto: Oxfordshire
euskara: Oxfordshire
فارسی: آکسفوردشر
français: Oxfordshire
Gaeilge: Oxfordshire
galego: Oxfordshire
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Oxfordshire
Bahasa Indonesia: Oxfordshire
interlingua: Oxfordshire
íslenska: Oxfordshire
italiano: Oxfordshire
ქართული: ოქსფორდშირი
latviešu: Oksfordšīra
Lëtzebuergesch: Oxfordshire
lietuvių: Oksfordšyras
magyar: Oxfordshire
მარგალური: ოქსფორდშირი
Nederlands: Oxfordshire
Nordfriisk: Oxfordshire
norsk nynorsk: Oxfordshire
polski: Oxfordshire
português: Oxfordshire
română: Oxfordshire
русский: Оксфордшир
Simple English: Oxfordshire
slovenčina: Oxfordshire
српски / srpski: Оксфордшир
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Oxfordshire
svenska: Oxfordshire
Türkçe: Oxfordshire
українська: Оксфордшир
Tiếng Việt: Oxfordshire
Volapük: Oxfordshire
Winaray: Oxfordshire
ייִדיש: אקספארדשיר
粵語: 牛津郡
中文: 牛津郡