Kamehameha Dynasty was the reigning monarchy of the Kingdom of Hawaii, beginning with its founding by
Kamehameha I in 1795, until the death of
Kamehameha V in 1872 and
Lunalilo in 1874.
 On July 6, 1846,
U.S. Secretary of State
John C. Calhoun, on behalf of
President Tyler, afforded formal recognition of Hawaiian independence under the reign of
 As a result of the recognition of Hawaiian independence, the Hawaiian Kingdom entered into treaties with the major nations of the world
 and established over ninety legations and consulates in multiple seaports and cities.
 The kingdom would continue for another 21 years until its overthrow in 1893 with the fall of the
House of Kalākaua.
Sugar had been a major export from Hawaii since Captain
James Cook's arrival in 1778.
 The first permanent plantation in the islands was on
Kauai in 1835.
William Hooper leased 980 acres of land from
Kamehameha III and began growing
sugar cane. Within thirty years there would be plantations on four of the main islands. Sugar had completely altered Hawaii's economy.
American influence in Hawaiian government began with American-born plantation owners demanding a say in Kingdom politics. This was driven by missionary religion and the economics of the sugar industry. Pressure from these foreign born politicians was being felt by the King and chiefs with demands of land tenure. After the 1843 takeover by the British, Kamehameha III relented to the foreign advisors to private land demands with the
Great Māhele, distributing the lands as pushed on heavily by the missionaries, including
Gerrit P. Judd.
 During the 1850s, the U.S. import tariff on sugar from Hawaii was much higher than the import tariffs Hawaiians were charging the U.S., and
Kamehameha III sought reciprocity.
 The monarch wished to lower the tariffs being paid out to the U.S. while still maintaining the Kingdom's sovereignty and making Hawaiian sugar competitive with other foreign markets. In 1854 Kamehameha III proposed a policy of reciprocity between the countries but the proposal died in the U.S. Senate.
As early as 1873, a United States military commission recommended attempting to obtain
Ford Island in exchange for the tax-free importation of sugar to the U.S.
 Major General
John Schofield, U.S. commander of the military division of the Pacific, and Brevet Brigadier General Burton S. Alexander arrived in Hawaii to ascertain its defensive capabilities. American control of Hawaii was considered vital for the defense of the west coast of the United States, and they were especially interested in
Pu'uloa, Pearl Harbor.
 The sale of one of Hawaii's harbors was proposed by
Charles Reed Bishop, a foreigner who had married into the
Kamehameha family, had risen in the government to be
Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs, and owned a country home near Pu'uloa. He showed the two U.S. officers around the lochs, although his wife,
Bernice Pauahi Bishop, privately disapproved of selling Hawaiian lands. As monarch,
William Charles Lunalilo, was content to let Bishop run almost all business affairs but the ceding of lands would become unpopular with the native Hawaiians. Many islanders thought that all the islands, rather than just Pearl Harbor, might be lost and opposed any cession of land. By November 1873, Lunalilo canceled negotiations and returned to drinking, against his doctor's advice; his health declined swiftly, and he died on February 3, 1874.
Lunalilo left no heirs. The legislature was empowered by the constitution to elect the monarch in these instances
 and chose
David Kalākaua as the next monarch.
 The new ruler was pressured by the U.S. government to surrender Pearl Harbor to the Navy.
 Kalākaua was concerned that this would lead to annexation by the U.S. and to the contravention of the traditions of the Hawaiian people, who believed that the land ('Āina) was fertile, sacred, and not for sale to anyone.
 In 1874 through 1875, Kalākaua traveled to the United States for a state visit to Washington DC to help gain support for a new treaty.
 Congress agreed to the
Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 for seven years in exchange for Ford Island.
 After the treaty, sugar production expanded from 12,000 acres of farm land to 125,000 acres in 1891.
 At the end of the seven-year reciprocity agreement, the United States showed little interest in renewal.
Rebellion of 1887 and the Bayonet Constitution
On January 20, 1887, the United States began leasing Pearl Harbor.
 Shortly afterwards, a group of mostly non-Hawaiians calling themselves the
Hawaiian Patriotic League began the
Rebellion of 1887.
 They drafted their own constitution on July 6, 1887.
 The new constitution was written by
Lorrin Thurston, the Hawaiian Minister of the Interior who used the Hawaiian militia as threat against Kalākaua.
 Kalākaua was forced under threat of assassination
 to dismiss his cabinet ministers and sign a new constitution which greatly lessened his power.
 It would become known as the "
Bayonet Constitution" due to the force used.
The Bayonet Constitution allowed the monarch to appoint cabinet ministers, but had stripped him of the power to dismiss them without approval from the Legislature.
:152 Eligibility to vote for the House of Nobles was also altered, stipulating that both candidates and voters were now required to own property valuing at least three thousand dollars, or have an annual income of no less than six hundred dollars.
 This resulted in disenfranchising two thirds of the native Hawaiians as well as other
ethnic groups who had previously held the right to vote but were no longer able to meet the new voting requirements.
 This new constitution benefited the white, foreign plantation owners.
 With the legislature now responsible for naturalizing citizens, Americans and Europeans could retain their home country citizenship and vote as citizens of the kingdom.
 Along with voting privileges, Americans could now run for office and still retain their American citizenship, something not afforded in any other nation of the world
 and even allowed Americans to vote without becoming naturalized.
 Asian immigrants were completely shut out and were no longer able to acquire citizenship or vote at all.
Wilcox Rebellion of 1888
The Wilcox Rebellion of 1888 was a plot to overthrow
King David Kalākaua, king of Hawaii, and replace him with his sister in a
coup d'état in response to increased political tension between the legislature and the king after the 1887 constitution. Kalākaua's sister,
ʻuokalani and his wife,
Queen Kapiolani, returned from
Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee immediately after news reached them in
Kalākaua's distant cousin, a native Hawaiian officer and veteran of the
Robert William Wilcox returned to Hawaii at about the same time as Liliʻuokalani
 in October 1887 when the funding for his study program stopped when the new constitution was signed. Wilcox,
Charles B. Wilson, Princess Liliʻuokalani, and
Sam Nowlein plotted to
overthrow King Kalākaua to replace him with his sister, Liliʻuokalani. They had 300 Hawaiian conspirators hidden in
ʻIolani Barracks and an alliance with the Royal Guard, but the plot was accidentally discovered in January 1888, less than 48 hours before the revolt would have been initiated.
 No one was prosecuted but Wilcox was
exiled. So on February 11, 1888, Wilcox left Hawaii for San Francisco, intending to return to Italy with his wife.
Princess Liliʻuokalani was offered the throne several times by the
Missionary Party who had forced the Bayonet Constitution on her brother, but she believed she would become a powerless figurehead like her brother and rejected the offers outright.
Liliʻuokalani attempts to re-write Constitution
In November 1889, Kalākaua traveled to San Francisco for his health, staying at the
Palace Hotel. He died there on January 20, 1890.
 His sister Liliʻuokalani assumed the throne in the middle of an economic crisis. The
McKinley Act had crippled the Hawaiian sugar industry by removing the duties on sugar imports from other countries into the US, eliminating the previous Hawaiian advantage gained via the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875.
 Many Hawaii businesses and citizens felt pressure from the loss of revenue; in response Liliʻuokalani proposed a
lottery system to raise money for her government. Also proposed was a controversial
opium licensing bill.
 Her ministers, and closest friends, were all opposed to this plan; they unsuccessfully tried to dissuade her from pursuing these initiatives, both of which came to be used against her in the brewing constitutional crisis.
Liliʻuokalani's chief desire was to restore power to the monarch by abrogating the 1887 Bayonet Constitution and promulgating a new one, an idea that seems to have been broadly supported by the Hawaiian population.
1893 Constitution would have increased suffrage by reducing some property requirements, and eliminated the voting privileges extended to European and American residents. It would have disfranchised many resident European and American businessmen who were not citizens of Hawaii. The Queen toured several of the islands on horseback, talking to the people about her ideas and receiving overwhelming support, including a lengthy petition in support of a new constitution. However, when the Queen informed her cabinet of her plans, they withheld their support due to an understanding of what her opponents' likely response to these plans would be.
Though there were threats to Hawaii's sovereignty throughout the Kingdom's history, it was not until the signing of the Bayonet Constitution in 1887 that this threat began to be realized. The precipitating event
 leading to the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893, was the attempt by Queen Liliʻuokalani to promulgate a new constitution that would have strengthened the power of the monarch relative to the legislature, where Euro-American business elites held disproportionate power. The stated goals of the conspirators, who were non-native Hawaiian Kingdom subjects (five American nationals, one English national, and one German national)
 were to depose the queen, overthrow the monarchy, and seek Hawaii's annexation to the United States.