Ottoman Empire

"Turkish Empire" redirects here. For empires with Turkic origins, see List of Turkic dynasties and countries.
Ottoman Empire
دولت عليه عثمانیه
Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye
Osmanlı Devleti
c. 1299–1922/1923 [dn 1]
Flag (1844–1922) Coat of arms (1882 design)
Motto
دولت ابد مدت
Devlet-i Ebed-müddet
"The Eternal State"
Anthem
(various)
(during 1808–1922)
The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in Europe, under Sultan Mehmed IV.
Capital
Languages
Religion
Government
Sultan
 •  c. 1299–1323/4 Osman I (first)
 •  1918–1922 Mehmed VI (last)
Caliph
 •  1512–1520 Selim I (first) [4]
 •  1922–1924 Abdülmecid II (last)
Grand Vizier
 •  1320–1331 Alaeddin Pasha (first)
 •  1920–1922 Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (last)
Legislature General Assembly
 •  Upper house Senate
 •  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
History
 •  Founded c. 1299
 •  Interregnum 1402–1414
 •  Transformation from sultanate to empire 1453
 •  1st Constitutional 1876–1878
 •  2nd Constitutional 1908–1920
 •  Sultanate abolished [dn 3] 1 November 1922
 •  Republic of Turkey established [dn 4] 29 October 1923
 •  Caliphate abolished 3 March 1924
Area
 •  1683 [5] [6] 5,200,000 km² (2,007,731 sq mi)
 •  1914 [7] 1,800,000 km² (694,984 sq mi)
Population
 •  1856 est. 35,350,000 
 •  1906 est. 20,884,000 
 •  1912 est. [8] 24,000,000 
Currency Akçe, Para, Sultani, Kuruş, Lira
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Anatolian Seljuks
Adal Sultanate
Anatolian beyliks
Byzantine Empire
Kingdom of Bosnia
Second Bulgarian Empire
Serbian Despotate
Coa Hungary Country History (19th Century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Croatia
Mamluk Sultanate
Hafsid dynasty
Hospitallers of Tripolitania
Kingdom of Tlemcen
Empire of Trebizond
Principality of Samtskhe
Turkish Prov. Gov.
Hellenic Republic
Caucasus Viceroyalty
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Revolutionary Serbia
Albania
Kingdom of Romania
Principality of Bulgaria
OETA
Mandatory Iraq
Kingdom of Hejaz
French Algeria
British Cyprus
French Tunisia
Italian Libya
Part of a series on the
History of the
Ottoman Empire
Coat of Arms of the Ottoman Empire
Historiography

The Ottoman Empire ( /ˈɒtəmən/; Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانیه‎, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also known as the Turkish Empire, [9] Ottoman Turkey, [10] [11] was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia in the vicinity of Bilecik and Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman. [12] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. [13]

During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling much of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. [14] At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. [dn 5]

With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. [15] The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society, and military throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century. [16] However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. [17] The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernization known as the Tanzimat. Thus over the course of the nineteenth century the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organized, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged. [18] The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, with the imperial ambition of recovering its lost territories, joining in World War I. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks. [19]

The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy and caliphate. [20]

Name

The word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman (also known as the Ottoman dynasty). Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān (عثمان). In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye (دولت عليه عثمانیه), [21] (literally "The Supreme Ottoman State") or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti (عثمانلى دولتى). In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ("The Ottoman Empire") or Osmanlı Devleti ("The Ottoman State").

The Turkish word for "Ottoman" (Osmanlı) originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" (Türk) was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, and was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. [22] In the early modern period, an urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker who was not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī (رومى), or "Roman," meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia. The term Rūmī was also used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. [23]

In the West, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were often used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", and "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character. [24]