Oregon

State of Oregon
Flag of Oregon State seal of Oregon
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Beaver State
Motto(s): Alis volat propriis
(English: She flies with her own wings)
State song(s): " Oregon, My Oregon"
Map of the United States with Oregon highlighted
Official language De jure: none [1]
De facto: English
Demonym Oregonian
Capital Salem
Largest city Portland
Largest metro Portland metropolitan area
Area Ranked 9th
 • Total 98,381 sq mi
(254,806 km2)
 • Width 400 miles (640 km)
 • Length 360 miles (580 km)
 • % water 2.4
 • Latitude 42° N to 46° 18′ N
 • Longitude 116° 28′ W to 124° 38′ W
Population Ranked 27th
 • Total 4,093,465 (2016 est.) [2]
 •  Density 39.9/sq mi  (15.0/km2)
Ranked 39th
 •  Median household income $60,834 [3] (17th)
Elevation
 • Highest point Mount Hood [4] [5] [6]
11,249 ft (3,428.8 m)
 • Mean 3,300 ft  (1,000 m)
 • Lowest point Pacific Ocean [5]
sea level
Before statehood Oregon Territory
Admission to Union February 14, 1859 (33rd)
Governor Kate Brown ( D)
Secretary of State Dennis Richardson ( R)
Legislature Legislative Assembly
 •  Upper house State Senate
 •  Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Ron Wyden (D)
Jeff Merkley (D)
U.S. House delegation 4 Democrats, 1 Republican ( list)
Time zones  
 • most of state Pacific: UTC −8/ −7
 • most of Malheur County Mountain: UTC −7/ −6
ISO 3166 US-OR
Abbreviations OR, Ore.
Website www.oregon.gov
Oregon state symbols
Flag of Oregon.svg
Seal of Oregon.svg
Living insignia
Bird Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
Crustacean Dungeness crab
(Metacarcinus magister)
Fish Chinook salmon
(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
Flower Oregon grape
(Mahonia aquifolium)
Grass Bluebunch wheatgrass
(Pseudoroegneria spicata)
Insect Oregon swallowtail
(Papilio oregonius)
Mammal American beaver
(Castor canadensis)
Tree Douglas-fir
Inanimate insignia
Beverage Milk
Dance Square dance
Food Pear
(Pyrus)
Fossil Metasequoia
Gemstone Oregon sunstone
Motto Alis volat propriis
Rock Thunderegg
Shell Oregon hairy triton
(Fusitriton oregonensis)
Slogan The Union
Soil Jory soil
Song " Oregon, My Oregon"
State route marker
Oregon state route marker
State quarter
Oregon quarter dollar coin
Released in 2005
Lists of United States state symbols

Oregon ( Listen i ən/ [7]) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary along Washington state, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary along Idaho. The parallel 42° north delineates the southern boundary with California and Nevada. It is one of only three states of the contiguous United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean.

Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers, and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles (255,000 km²), Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U.S. state. The state capital, Salem, is the second most populous of its cities, with 164,549 residents, while Portland, with 632,309 residents, is the most populous, ranking as the 26th most populous city in the United States. The Portland metropolitan area, which also includes the city of Vancouver, Washington to the north, ranks the 23rd largest metro in the nation with a population of 2,389,228.

Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the United States, [8] marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet (3,429 m), Mount Hood is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is also home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 8.9 km2 (2,200 acres) of the Malheur National Forest. [9]

Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is largely powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing, and hydroelectric power. It is also the top timber-producer of the lower 48 states. [10] Technology is another one of the state's major economic forces, which began in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc., headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. [11]

Etymology

Oregon border welcome sign at Denio, Nevada.

The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins. The term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California (1598) [12] written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Motezuma and made reference to the Columbia river when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are also two other sources with Spanish origins such as the name Oregano which grows in the southern part of the region. It is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" which is situated in the province of Ciudad Real, also considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". [13]

Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain. The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West (the Columbia River). By 1778 the spelling had shifted to Oregon. [14] In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote:

The rout [ sic]...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... [15]

One theory is the name comes from the French word ouragan ("windstorm" or "hurricane"), which was applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds of the lower Columbia River, or perhaps from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. [16]

Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived:

The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Aure il agua—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given probably by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, and it literally, in a large way, means cascades: 'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand entirely the full meaning of the name Aure il agua, Oregon. [17]

Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink (Wisconsin) River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint," broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon."

According to the Oregon Tourism Commission (doing business as Travel Oregon), present-day Oregonians z/ [18] pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone." [7] After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state. [19] [20] The stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. [21]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Oregon
Alemannisch: Oregon
አማርኛ: ኦረጎን
Ænglisc: Oregon
العربية: أوريغون
aragonés: Oregón
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܘܪܝܓܘܢ
arpetan: Oregon
asturianu: Oregón
Avañe'ẽ: Oregon
Aymar aru: Oregon suyu
azərbaycanca: Oreqon
বাংলা: অরেগন
Bân-lâm-gú: Oregon
беларуская: Штат Арэгон
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Арэгон
भोजपुरी: ऑरेगन
Bikol Central: Oregon
Bislama: Oregon
български: Орегон
Boarisch: Oregon
bosanski: Oregon
brezhoneg: Oregon
буряад: Орегон
català: Oregon
Чӑвашла: Орегон
Cebuano: Oregon
čeština: Oregon
corsu: Oregon
Cymraeg: Oregon
dansk: Oregon
Deutsch: Oregon
eesti: Oregon
Ελληνικά: Όρεγκον
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Òregun
español: Oregón
Esperanto: Oregono
euskara: Oregon
فارسی: اورگن
Fiji Hindi: Oregon
føroyskt: Oregon
français: Oregon
Frysk: Oregon
Gaeilge: Oregon
Gaelg: Oregon
Gagauz: Oregon
Gàidhlig: Oregon
galego: Oregón
ગુજરાતી: ઑરેગોન
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Oregon
хальмг: Орегон
한국어: 오리건 주
Hawaiʻi: ‘Olekona
Հայերեն: Օրեգոն
हिन्दी: औरिगन
hornjoserbsce: Oregon
hrvatski: Oregon
Ido: Oregon
Igbo: Oregon
Ilokano: Oregon
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: অরেগন
Bahasa Indonesia: Oregon
interlingua: Oregon
Interlingue: Oregon
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐆᕇᕇᓐ
Iñupiak: Oregon
Ирон: Орегон
íslenska: Oregon
italiano: Oregon
עברית: אורגון
Basa Jawa: Oregon
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಆರೆಗನ್
Kapampangan: Oregon
ქართული: ორეგონი
қазақша: Орегон
kernowek: Oregon
Kiswahili: Oregon
Kreyòl ayisyen: Oregon
Kurdî: Oregon
кырык мары: Орегон
Ladino: Oregon
لۊری شومالی: ئوراگون
Latina: Oregonia
latviešu: Oregona
Lëtzebuergesch: Oregon
lietuvių: Oregonas
Ligure: Oregon
Limburgs: Oregon
la .lojban.: oregon
lumbaart: Oregon
magyar: Oregon
македонски: Орегон
Malagasy: Oregon
മലയാളം: ഒറിഗൺ
Māori: Oregon
मराठी: ओरेगन
მარგალური: ორეგონი
مصرى: اوريجون
مازِرونی: اورگن
Bahasa Melayu: Oregon
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Oregon
монгол: Орегон
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အိုရီဂွန်ပြည်နယ်
Nāhuatl: Oregon
Dorerin Naoero: Oregon
Nederlands: Oregon
Nedersaksies: Oregon
नेपाली: ओरेगन
नेपाल भाषा: अरेगन
日本語: オレゴン州
нохчийн: Орегон
Nordfriisk: Oregon
norsk bokmål: Oregon
norsk nynorsk: Oregon
occitan: Oregon
олык марий: Орегон
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Oregon
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਔਰੇਗਨ
पालि: ओरेगन
پنجابی: اوریگون
Papiamentu: Oregon
Piemontèis: Oregon
Plattdüütsch: Oregon
polski: Oregon
português: Óregon
română: Oregon
rumantsch: Oregon
Runa Simi: Oregon suyu
русский: Орегон
саха тыла: Орегон
sámegiella: Oregon
संस्कृतम्: ओरेगन्
sardu: Oregon
Scots: Oregon
Seeltersk: Oregon
shqip: Oregon
sicilianu: Oregon
සිංහල: ඔරෙගන්
Simple English: Oregon
slovenčina: Oregon
slovenščina: Oregon
ślůnski: Oregon
کوردیی ناوەندی: ئۆریگۆن
српски / srpski: Орегон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Oregon
suomi: Oregon
svenska: Oregon
Tagalog: Oregon
தமிழ்: ஓரிகன்
Taqbaylit: Oregon
татарча/tatarça: Орегон
Türkçe: Oregon
українська: Орегон
اردو: اوریگون
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Orégon Shitati
vèneto: Oregon
Tiếng Việt: Oregon
Volapük: Oregon
文言: 俄勒岡州
Winaray: Oregon
吴语: 俄勒冈
ייִדיש: ארעגאן
Yorùbá: Oregon
粵語: 俄勒岡州
Zazaki: Oregon
žemaitėška: Oregons
中文: 俄勒冈州