Oregon

Oregon
State of Oregon
Nickname(s): 
The Beaver State
Motto(s): 
Alis volat propriis
(English: She flies with her own wings)
Anthem: Oregon, My Oregon
Map of the United States with Oregon highlighted
Map of the United States with Oregon highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodOregon Territory
Admitted to the UnionFebruary 14, 1859 (33rd)
CapitalSalem
Largest cityPortland
Largest metroPortland metropolitan area
Government
 • GovernorKate Brown (D)
 • Secretary of StateBeverly Clarno (R)
Area
 • Total98,381 sq mi (254,806 km2)
 • Land95,997 sq mi (248,849 km2)
 • Water2,384 sq mi (6,177 km2)  2.4%
Area rank9th
Dimensions
 • Length360 mi (580 km)
 • Width400 mi (640 km)
Elevation
3,300 ft (1,000 m)
Highest elevation11,249 ft (3,428.8 m)
Lowest elevation
(Pacific Ocean[2])
0 ft (0 m)
Population
 • Total4,190,713 (2,018)
 • Rank27th
 • Density39.9/sq mi (15.0/km2)
 • Density rank39th
 • Median household income
$60,212[4]
 • Income rank
21st
Demonym(s)Oregonian
Language
 • Official languageDe jure: none[5]
De facto: Pacific Northwest English
Time zones
primaryUTC-08:00 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-07:00 (PDT)
primary for Malheur CountyUTC-07:00 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-06:00 (MDT)
USPS abbreviation
OR
ISO 3166 codeUS-OR
Trad. abbreviationOre.
LegislatureLegislative Assembly
 • Upper houseState Senate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsRon Wyden (D)
Jeff Merkley (D)
U.S. House delegation4 Democrats
1 Republican (www.oregon.gov
Oregon state symbols
Flag of Oregon.svg
Seal of Oregon.svg
Living insignia
BirdWestern meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
CrustaceanDungeness crab
(Metacarcinus magister)
FishChinook salmon
(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
FlowerOregon grape
(Mahonia aquifolium)
GrassBluebunch wheatgrass
(Pseudoroegneria spicata)
InsectOregon swallowtail
(Papilio oregonius)
MammalAmerican beaver
(Castor canadensis)
TreeDouglas-fir
Inanimate insignia
BeverageMilk
DanceSquare dance
FoodPear
(Pyrus)
FossilMetasequoia
GemstoneOregon sunstone
RockThunderegg
ShellOregon hairy triton
(Fusitriton oregonensis)
SloganThe Union
SoilJory soil
OtherNut: Hazelnut
State route marker
Oregon state route marker
State quarter
Oregon quarter dollar coin
Released in 2005
Lists of United States state symbols

Oregon (ən/ (About this soundlisten) ORR-ih-gən)[6] is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho. The parallel 42° north delineates the southern boundary with California and Nevada.

Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers, and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles (250,000 km2), Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U.S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U.S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which also includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.

Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U.S.,[7] marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet (3,429 m), Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is also home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres (8.9 km2) of the Malheur National Forest.[8]

Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is largely powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing, and hydroelectric power. Oregon is also the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, and the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century.[9] Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc., headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion.[10]

Etymology

Oregon border welcome sign at Denio, Nevada

The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins. The term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California (1598)[11] written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are also two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region. It is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" (which is situated in the province of Ciudad Real), also considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j".[12]

Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain. The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West (the Columbia River). By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon.[13] In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote:

The rout [sic]...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon...[14]

One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan ("windstorm" or "hurricane"), which was applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or perhaps from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains.[15]

Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived:

The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given probably by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, and it literally, in a large way, means cascades: 'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand entirely the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.[16]

Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink (Wisconsin) River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon".

According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians z/[17] pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone".[18] After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state.[19][20] The stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore.[21]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Oregon
Alemannisch: Oregon
አማርኛ: ኦረጎን
Ænglisc: Oregon
العربية: أوريغون
aragonés: Oregón
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܘܪܝܓܘܢ
arpetan: Oregon
asturianu: Oregón
Avañe'ẽ: Oregon
Aymar aru: Oregon suyu
azərbaycanca: Oreqon
বাংলা: অরেগন
Bân-lâm-gú: Oregon
беларуская: Арэгон
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Арэгон
भोजपुरी: ऑरेगन
Bikol Central: Oregon
Bislama: Oregon
български: Орегон
Boarisch: Oregon
bosanski: Oregon
brezhoneg: Oregon
буряад: Орегон
català: Oregon
Чӑвашла: Орегон
Cebuano: Oregon
čeština: Oregon
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Oregon
corsu: Oregon
Cymraeg: Oregon
dansk: Oregon
davvisámegiella: Oregon
Deutsch: Oregon
eesti: Oregon
Ελληνικά: Όρεγκον
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Òregun
español: Oregón
Esperanto: Oregono
euskara: Oregon
فارسی: اورگن
Fiji Hindi: Oregon
føroyskt: Oregon
français: Oregon
Frysk: Oregon
Gaeilge: Oregon
Gaelg: Oregon
Gagauz: Oregon
Gàidhlig: Oregon
galego: Oregón
ગુજરાતી: ઑરેગોન
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Oregon
хальмг: Орегон
한국어: 오리건주
Hausa: Oregon
Hawaiʻi: ‘Olekona
հայերեն: Օրեգոն
हिन्दी: औरिगन
hornjoserbsce: Oregon
hrvatski: Oregon
Ido: Oregon
Igbo: Oregon
Ilokano: Oregon
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: অরেগন
Bahasa Indonesia: Oregon
interlingua: Oregon
Interlingue: Oregon
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐆᕇᕇᓐ
Iñupiak: Oregon
Ирон: Орегон
isiXhosa: I-Oregoni
íslenska: Oregon
italiano: Oregon
עברית: אורגון
Jawa: Oregon
Kabɩyɛ: Oreegonii
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಆರೆಗನ್
Kapampangan: Oregon
ქართული: ორეგონი
қазақша: Орегон
kernowek: Oregon
Kiswahili: Oregon
Kreyòl ayisyen: Oregon
kurdî: Oregon
кырык мары: Орегон
Ladino: Oregon
لۊری شومالی: ئوراگون
Latina: Oregonia
latviešu: Oregona
Lëtzebuergesch: Oregon
lietuvių: Oregonas
Ligure: Oregon
Limburgs: Oregon
Lingua Franca Nova: Oregon
la .lojban.: oregon
lumbaart: Oregon
magyar: Oregon
मैथिली: ओरेगन
македонски: Орегон
Malagasy: Oregon
മലയാളം: ഒറിഗൺ
Māori: Oregon
मराठी: ओरेगन
მარგალური: ორეგონი
مصرى: اوريجون
مازِرونی: اورگن
Bahasa Melayu: Oregon
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Oregon
монгол: Орегон
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အိုရီဂွန်ပြည်နယ်
Nāhuatl: Oregon
Dorerin Naoero: Oregon
Nederlands: Oregon
Nedersaksies: Oregon
नेपाली: ओरेगन
नेपाल भाषा: अरेगन
日本語: オレゴン州
нохчийн: Орегон
Nordfriisk: Oregon
norsk: Oregon
norsk nynorsk: Oregon
occitan: Oregon
олык марий: Орегон
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Oregon
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਔਰੇਗਨ
पालि: ओरेगन
پنجابی: اوریگون
Papiamentu: Oregon
پښتو: اورګان
Piemontèis: Oregon
Plattdüütsch: Oregon
polski: Oregon
português: Óregon
română: Oregon
rumantsch: Oregon
Runa Simi: Oregon suyu
русский: Орегон
саха тыла: Орегон
संस्कृतम्: ओरेगन्
sardu: Oregon
Scots: Oregon
Seeltersk: Oregon
shqip: Oregon
sicilianu: Oregon
සිංහල: ඔරෙගන්
Simple English: Oregon
slovenčina: Oregon
slovenščina: Oregon
ślůnski: Oregon
کوردی: ئۆریگۆن
српски / srpski: Орегон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Oregon
suomi: Oregon
svenska: Oregon
Tagalog: Oregon
தமிழ்: ஓரிகன்
Taqbaylit: Oregon
татарча/tatarça: Орегон
тоҷикӣ: Орегон
Türkçe: Oregon
українська: Орегон
اردو: اوریگون
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Orégon Shitati
vèneto: Oregon
Tiếng Việt: Oregon
Volapük: Oregon
文言: 俄勒岡州
Winaray: Oregon
吴语: 俄勒冈
ייִדיש: ארעגאן
Yorùbá: Oregon
粵語: 俄勒岡州
Zazaki: Oregon
Zeêuws: Oregon
žemaitėška: Oregons
中文: 俄勒冈州