|Part of the
|Commanders and leaders|
|1,143,500 personnel (including reserve)
894 tanks 
13,451 artillery pieces 
1,500 aircraft 
unknown number of artillery pieces
732 aircraft (402 serviceable)
unknown number of artillery pieces or aircraft 
827 artillery pieces
unknown number of aircraft 
unknown number of artillery pieces or tanks 
|Casualties and losses|
789,600 total 330,000 KIA 450,000 WIA9,600 MIA
500,000 Wehrmacht 157,000 Hungarian 114,000 Italian 109,000 Romanian40,000 Other
Operation Uranus (
Due to the length of the front created by the German
At 07:20 Moscow time on 19 November, Soviet forces on the northern flank of the Axis forces at Stalingrad began their offensive; forces in the south began on 20 November. Although Romanian units were able to repel the first attacks, by the end of 20 November the Third and Fourth Romanian armies were in headlong retreat, as the Red Army bypassed several German infantry divisions. German mobile reserves were not strong enough to parry the Soviet mechanized spearheads, while the Sixth Army did not react quickly enough nor decisively enough to disengage German armored forces in Stalingrad and reorient them to defeat the impending threat. By late 22 November Soviet forces linked up at the town of
On 28 June 1942, the
By November the Sixth Army had occupied most of Stalingrad, pushing the defending Red Army to the banks of the Volga River.
 By this stage, there were indications of an impending Soviet offensive which would target Wehrmacht forces around the city, including increased Soviet activity opposite the Sixth Army's flanks, and information gained through the interrogation of Soviet prisoners.
 However, the German command was intent upon finalizing its capture of Stalingrad.
 In fact, head of
The Stavka developed two major operations to be conducted against Axis forces near Stalingrad, Uranus and