Old Norse

  • old norse
    dǫnsk tunga ("danish tongue")
    norrønt mál ("nordic language")
    native toscandinavia
    regionnordic countries, great britain, ireland, isle of man, normandy, newfoundland, the volga and places in-between
    ethnicityvikings
    eraevolved from proto norse in the 8th century, developed into the various north germanic languages by the 14th century
    language family
    indo-european
    • germanic
      • north germanic
        • old norse
    early forms
    proto-indo-european
    • proto-germanic
      • proto-norse
    writing system
    runic, later latin (old norse alphabet)
    language codes
    non
    iso 639-3non
    oldn1244[1]
    this article contains ipa phonetic symbols. without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of unicode characters. for an introductory guide on ipa symbols, see help:ipa.

    old norse was a north germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th centuries.

    the proto-norse language developed into old norse by the 8th century, and old norse began to develop into the modern north germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as old norse. these dates, however, are not absolute, since written old norse is found well into the 15th century.[2]

    old norse was divided into three dialects: old west norse, old east norse, and old gutnish. old west and east norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them. for example, old east norse traits were found in eastern norway, although old norwegian is classified as old west norse, and old west norse traits were found in western sweden. most speakers spoke old east norse in what is present-day denmark and sweden. old gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is sometimes included in the old east norse dialect due to geographical associations. it developed its own unique features and shared in changes to both other branches.

    the 12th-century icelandic gray goose laws state that swedes, norwegians, icelanders, and danes spoke the same language, dǫnsk tunga ("danish tongue"; speakers of old east norse would have said dansk tunga). another term, used especially commonly with reference to west norse, was norrœnt mál or norrǿnt mál ("nordic/northern speech"). today old norse has developed into the modern north germanic languages icelandic, faroese (both inherited cases from the language), norwegian, danish, and swedish, of which norwegian, danish and swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility.

  • geographical distribution
  • modern descendants
  • phonology
  • phonological processes
  • phonotactics
  • grammar
  • texts
  • dialects
  • relationship to other languages
  • see also
  • references
  • sources
  • external links

Old Norse
dǫnsk tunga ("Danish tongue")
norrønt mál ("Nordic language")
Native toScandinavia
RegionNordic countries, Great Britain, Ireland, Isle of Man, Normandy, Newfoundland, the Volga and places in-between
EthnicityVikings
EraEvolved from Proto Norse in the 8th century, developed into the various North Germanic languages by the 14th century
Early forms
Runic, later Latin (Old Norse alphabet)
Language codes
non
ISO 639-3non
oldn1244[1]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th centuries.

The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse by the 8th century, and Old Norse began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse is found well into the 15th century.[2]

Old Norse was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them. For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden. Most speakers spoke Old East Norse in what is present-day Denmark and Sweden. Old Gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is sometimes included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations. It developed its own unique features and shared in changes to both other branches.

The 12th-century Icelandic Gray Goose Laws state that Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders, and Danes spoke the same language, dǫnsk tunga ("Danish tongue"; speakers of Old East Norse would have said dansk tunga). Another term, used especially commonly with reference to West Norse, was norrœnt mál or norrǿnt mál ("Nordic/Northern speech"). Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese (both inherited cases from the language), Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Oudnoors
asturianu: Nórdicu antiguu
azərbaycanca: Qədim skandinav dili
brezhoneg: Norseg
català: Nòrdic antic
Cymraeg: Hen Norseg
français: Vieux norrois
Frysk: Aldnoarsk
íslenska: Fornnorræna
italiano: Lingua norrena
lumbaart: Nors antich
Nederlands: Oudnoords
Nedersaksies: Ooldnoords
日本語: 古ノルド語
Nouormand: Vuû norreis
occitan: Noroèc
Papiamentu: Nordico bieu
Scots: Auld Norse
Simple English: Old Norse language
slovenčina: Staroseverčina
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Staronordijski jezik
svenska: Fornnordiska
Türkçe: Eski Norsça
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Bắc Âu cổ
West-Vlams: Oudnoors
中文: 古諾斯語