Old English

  • old english
    anglo-saxon
    Ænglisc, englisc, anglisc
    beowulf.kenning.jpg
    a detail of the first page of the beowulf manuscript, showing the words "ofer hron rade", translated as "over the whale's road (sea)". it is an example of an old english stylistic device, the kenning.
    pronunciation[ˈæŋɡliʃ]
    regionengland (except the extreme south-west and north-west), southern and eastern scotland, and the eastern fringes of modern wales.
    eramostly developed into middle english and early scots by the 13th century
    language family
    indo-european
    • germanic
      • west germanic
        • ingvaeonic
          • anglo-frisian
            • anglic
              • old english
    dialects
    • kentish
    • mercian
    • northumbrian
    • west saxon
    writing system
    runic, later latin (old english alphabet).
    language codes
    ang
    iso 639-3ang
    iso 639-6ango
    olde1238[1]
    this article contains ipa phonetic symbols. without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of unicode characters. for an introductory guide on ipa symbols, see help:ipa.

    old english (Ænglisc, anglisc, englisc, pronounced [ˈæŋɡliʃ]), or anglo-saxon,[2] is the earliest historical form of the english language, spoken in england and southern and eastern scotland in the early middle ages. it was probably brought to great britain by anglo-saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, and the first old english literary works date from the mid-7th century. after the norman conquest of 1066, english was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by anglo-norman, a relative of french. this is regarded as marking the end of the old english era, as during this period the english language was heavily influenced by anglo-norman, developing into a phase known now as middle english.

    old english developed from a set of anglo-frisian or ingvaeonic dialects originally spoken by germanic tribes traditionally known as the angles, saxons and jutes. as the anglo-saxons became dominant in england, their language replaced the languages of roman britain: common brittonic, a celtic language, and latin, brought to britain by roman invasion. old english had four main dialects, associated with particular anglo-saxon kingdoms: mercian, northumbrian, kentish and west saxon. it was west saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the later old english period,[3] although the dominant forms of middle and modern english would develop mainly from mercian. the speech of eastern and northern parts of england was subject to strong old norse influence due to scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century.

    old english is one of the west germanic languages, and its closest relatives are old frisian and old saxon. like other old germanic languages, it is very different from modern english and difficult for modern english speakers to understand without study. within old english grammar nouns, adjectives, pronouns and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, and word order is much freer.[3] the oldest old english inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 8th century this was replaced by a version of the latin alphabet.

  • terminology
  • history
  • dialects
  • influence of other languages
  • phonology
  • grammar
  • orthography
  • literature
  • dictionaries
  • revivals
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Old English
Anglo-Saxon
Ænglisc, Englisc, Anglisc
Beowulf.Kenning.jpg
A detail of the first page of the Beowulf manuscript, showing the words "ofer hron rade", translated as "over the whale's road (sea)". It is an example of an Old English stylistic device, the kenning.
Pronunciation[ˈæŋɡliʃ]
RegionEngland (except the extreme south-west and north-west), southern and eastern Scotland, and the eastern fringes of modern Wales.
EraMostly developed into Middle English and Early Scots by the 13th century
Dialects
Runic, later Latin (Old English alphabet).
Language codes
ang
ISO 639-3ang
ISO 639-6ango
olde1238[1]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc, pronounced [ˈæŋɡliʃ]), or Anglo-Saxon,[2] is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was probably brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French. This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English.

Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects originally spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles, Saxons and Jutes. As the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, and Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian, Kentish and West Saxon. It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the later Old English period,[3] although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop mainly from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century.

Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, and its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is very different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Within Old English grammar nouns, adjectives, pronouns and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, and word order is much freer.[3] The oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 8th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet.

Other Languages
Ænglisc: Ænglisc spræc
asturianu: Inglés antiguu
Bân-lâm-gú: Kó͘ Eng-gí
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Стараангельская мова
brezhoneg: Hensaozneg
català: Anglès antic
čeština: Staroangličtina
Cymraeg: Hen Saesneg
Deutsch: Altenglisch
føroyskt: Fornenskt mál
français: Vieil anglais
Frysk: Aldingelsk
한국어: 고대 영어
հայերեն: Հին անգլերեն
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Inggris Kuno
íslenska: Fornenska
latviešu: Senangļu valoda
Limburgs: Aajdingels
Lingua Franca Nova: Engles antica
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Inggeris Kuno
Nederlands: Oudengels
日本語: 古英語
norsk nynorsk: Gammalengelsk
Nouormand: Vuur aunglleis
Plattdüütsch: Angelsassische Sprake
português: Inglês antigo
Simple English: Old English
slovenčina: Anglosaština
slovenščina: Stara angleščina
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Staroengleski jezik
svenska: Fornengelska
Türkçe: Eski İngilizce
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Anh cổ
West-Vlams: Oudiengels
吴语: 古英语
粵語: 古英文
中文: 古英语