Ohio

State of Ohio
Flag of OhioState seal of Ohio
FlagSeal
Nickname(s): The Buckeye State;
Birthplace of Aviation; The Heart of It All
Motto(s): With God, all things are possible (1959)[1]
State song(s): "Beautiful Ohio (1969)[2]
Hang On Sloopy (1985)[3]
"
Map of the United States with Ohio highlighted
Official languageDe jure: None
De facto: English
Spoken languagesEnglish 93.3%
Spanish 2.2%
Other 4.5%[4]
DemonymOhioan; Buckeye[5] (colloq.)
Capital
(and largest city)
Columbus[6][7]
Largest metroGreater Cincinnati
Greater Columbus
(see footnotes [8])
AreaRanked 34th
 • Total44,825 sq mi
(116,096 km2)
 • Width220 miles (355 km)
 • Length220 miles (355 km)
 • % water8.7
 • Latitude38° 24′ N to 41° 59′ N
 • Longitude80° 31′ W to 84° 49′ W
PopulationRanked 7th
 • Total11,658,609 (2017 est.)[9]
 • Density282/sq mi  (109/km2)
Ranked 10th
 • Median household income$53,301[10] (32nd)
Elevation
 • Highest pointCampbell Hill[11][12]
1,549 ft (472 m)
 • Mean850 ft  (260 m)
 • Lowest pointOhio River at Indiana border[11][12]
455 ft (139 m)
Admission to UnionMarch 1, 1803[13] (17th,
declared retroactively on
August 7, 1953[14])
GovernorJohn Kasich (R)
Lieutenant GovernorMary Taylor (R)
LegislatureGeneral Assembly
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsSherrod Brown (D)
Rob Portman (R)
U.S. House delegation12 Republicans
4 Democrats (list)
Time zoneEastern: UTC -5/-4
ISO 3166US-OH
Abbreviations[15]
Websitewww.ohio.gov
Ohio state symbols
Flag of Ohio.svg
Seal of Ohio (Official).svg
Living insignia
AmphibianSpotted salamander
BirdCardinal (1933)[2]
FlowerRed carnation (1904)[2]
InsectLadybug (1975)[2]
MammalWhite-tailed deer (1987)[2]
ReptileBlack racer snake (1995)[2]
TreeBuckeye (1953)[2]
Inanimate insignia
BeverageTomato juice (1965)[2]
FossilIsotelus maximus, a trilobite (1985)[2]
GemstoneOhio flint (1965)[2]
SloganSo Much to Discover
OtherWild flower: Great white trillium (1986)[2]
Fruit: Pawpaw
State route marker
Ohio state route marker
State quarter
Ohio quarter dollar coin
Released in 2002
Lists of United States state symbols

Ohio / (About this sound listen) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, and the tenth most densely populated. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus.

The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek".[16][17][18] Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, and the first under the Northwest Ordinance.[13][19] Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes".[5]

The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor; the legislative branch, which comprises the bicameral Ohio General Assembly; and the judicial branch, led by the state Supreme Court. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives.[20] Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state[21] and a bellwether[21] in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state.

Geography

Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity.[22] To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles (502 km) of coastline,[23] which allows for numerous cargo ports. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River (with the border being at the 1792 low-water mark on the north side of the river),[24] and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast. Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows:

Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, and on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, and thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid.

The Ohio coast of Lake Erie.

Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia (which at that time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and, by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792.[24] Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.

The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River.

Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests.

Physical geography of Ohio.

The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state. In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region."[25] This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia.[26] While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.)[27]

Map of Ohio

Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and then the Mississippi.

The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton. As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.[28]

Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles (52 km2), was the largest artificial lake in the world. Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.

Climate

Köppen climate types in Ohio now showing majority as humid subtropical.

The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa/Dfb) throughout most of the state, except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region section, which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and Upland South region of the United States. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round. Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer tornado reports in Ohio than in states located in what is known as the Tornado Alley. Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of Lake Erie, which is located in an area designated as the Snowbelt.

Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna do reach well into Ohio. For instance, some trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak, Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional needle palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the state. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 from Cincinnati to Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Ohio[29]
Location July (°F) July (°C) January (°F) January (°C)
Columbus 85/65 29/18 36/22 2/–5
Cleveland 82/64 28/18 34/21 1/–5
Cincinnati 86/66 30/19 39/23 3/–5
Toledo 84/62 29/17 32/18 0/–7
Akron 82/62 28/16 33/19 0/–7
Dayton 87/67 31/19 36/22 2/–5
Canton 82/62 28/16 33/19 1/–7

Records

The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F (45 °C), near Gallipolis on July 21, 1934.[30] The lowest recorded temperature was −39 °F (−39 °C), at Milligan on February 10, 1899,[31] during the Great Blizzard of 1899.[32]

Earthquakes

Although few have registered as noticeable to the average resident, more than 30 earthquakes occurred in Ohio between 2002 and 2007, and more than 200 quakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred since 1776.[33]

The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna (Shelby County) earthquake,[34] which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity VIII.[35]

Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include:[36] one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima on September 19, 1884;[37] one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth on May 17, 1901;[38] and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.[39][40]

The most recent earthquake in Ohio of any appreciable magnitude occurred on December 31, 2011, at 3:05pm EST. It had a magnitude of 4.0, and its epicenter was located approximately 4 kilometres northwest of Youngstown (41°7′19.1994″N 80°41′2.3994″W / 41°7′19.1994″N 80°41′2.3994″W / 41.121999833; -80.683999833), near the Trumbull/Mahoning county border.[41]

The Ohio Seismic Network (OhioSeis), a group of seismograph stations at several colleges, universities, and other institutions, and coordinated by the Division of Geological Survey of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources,[42] maintains an extensive catalog of Ohio earthquakes from 1776 to the present day, as well as earthquakes located in other states whose effects were felt in Ohio.[43]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Ohio
አማርኛ: ኦሃዮ
Ænglisc: Ohio
العربية: أوهايو
aragonés: Ohio
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܘܗܐܝܘ
arpetan: Ohio
asturianu: Ohio
Avañe'ẽ: Ohio
Aymar aru: Ohio suyu
azərbaycanca: Ohayo
বাংলা: ওহাইও
Bân-lâm-gú: Ohio
башҡортса: Огайо
беларуская: Агая
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Агаё
भोजपुरी: ओहायो
Bikol Central: Ohio
Bislama: Ohio
български: Охайо
Boarisch: Ohio
བོད་ཡིག: ཨོ་ཧེའོ།
bosanski: Ohio
brezhoneg: Ohio
буряад: Оһайо
català: Ohio
Чӑвашла: Огайо (штат)
Cebuano: Ohio (estado)
čeština: Ohio
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Ohio
corsu: Ohio
Cymraeg: Ohio
dansk: Ohio
davvisámegiella: Ohio
Deitsch: Ohio
Deutsch: Ohio
Diné bizaad: Bįįhtó Hahoodzo
eesti: Ohio
Ελληνικά: Οχάιο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Ohio
español: Ohio
Esperanto: Ohio
euskara: Ohio
فارسی: اوهایو
Fiji Hindi: Ohio
føroyskt: Ohio
français: Ohio
Frysk: Ohio
Gaeilge: Ohio
Gaelg: Ohio
Gagauz: Ohio
Gàidhlig: Ohio
galego: Ohio
گیلکی: اؤهايؤ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ohio
хальмг: Охайо
한국어: 오하이오주
Hawaiʻi: ‘Ohaio
հայերեն: Օհայո
हिन्दी: ओहायो
hornjoserbsce: Ohio
hrvatski: Ohio
Ido: Ohio
Igbo: Ohaïyo
Ilokano: Ohio
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ওহাইও
Bahasa Indonesia: Ohio
interlingua: Ohio
Interlingue: Ohio
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐅᓵᐃᐅ
Iñupiak: Ohio
Ирон: Огайо
íslenska: Ohio
italiano: Ohio
עברית: אוהיו
Basa Jawa: Ohio
Kabɩyɛ: Ohiyo
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಒಹಾಯೊ
Kapampangan: Ohio
ქართული: ოჰაიო
қазақша: Огайо
kernowek: Ohio
Kiswahili: Ohio
Kreyòl ayisyen: Owayo
kurdî: Ohio
кырык мары: Огайо (штат)
Ladino: Ohio
لۊری شومالی: اوهایو
Latina: Ohium
latviešu: Ohaio (štats)
Lëtzebuergesch: Ohio
lietuvių: Ohajas
Ligure: Ohio
Limburgs: Ohio
Lingua Franca Nova: Ohio
la .lojban.: o'aios
lumbaart: Ohio
magyar: Ohio
मैथिली: ओहायो
македонски: Охајо
Malagasy: Ohio
മലയാളം: ഒഹായോ
Māori: Ohio
मराठी: ओहायो
მარგალური: ოჰაიოშ შტატი
مصرى: اوهايو
مازِرونی: اوهایو
Bahasa Melayu: Ohio
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ohio
монгол: Охайо
Nāhuatl: Ohio
Dorerin Naoero: Ohio
Nederlands: Ohio (staat)
नेपाली: ओहायो
नेपाल भाषा: ओहायो
日本語: オハイオ州
нохчийн: Огайо
Nordfriisk: Ohio
norsk: Ohio
norsk nynorsk: Ohio
occitan: Ohio
олык марий: Огайо
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ogayo
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਓਹਾਇਓ
पालि: ओहायो
پنجابی: اوہائیو
Papiamentu: Ohio
Piemontèis: Ohio
Plattdüütsch: Ohio
polski: Ohio
português: Ohio
Ripoarisch: Ohio (Bundesstaat)
română: Ohio
rumantsch: Ohio
Runa Simi: Ohio suyu
русский: Огайо
саха тыла: Огайо
संस्कृतम्: ओहायो
sardu: Ohio
Scots: Ohio
Seeltersk: Ohio
shqip: Ohio
sicilianu: Ohio
Simple English: Ohio
slovenčina: Ohio
slovenščina: Ohio
ślůnski: Ohio
کوردی: ئۆھایۆ
српски / srpski: Охајо
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ohio
suomi: Ohio
svenska: Ohio
Tagalog: Ohio
தமிழ்: ஒகையோ
Taqbaylit: Ohio
татарча/tatarça: Оһайо (штат)
тоҷикӣ: Оҳайо
Türkçe: Ohio
українська: Огайо
اردو: اوہائیو
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Oxayo Shtati
vèneto: Ohio
Tiếng Việt: Ohio
Volapük: Ohio
文言: 俄亥俄州
Winaray: Ohio
ייִדיש: אהאיא
Yorùbá: Ohio
粵語: 俄亥俄州
Zazaki: Ohio
Zeêuws: Ohio
žemaitėška: Ohajos
中文: 俄亥俄州