Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán (c. 1490 – 1558) was a Spanish
conquistador and colonial administrator in
New Spain. He was the governor of the province of
Pánuco from 1525 to 1533 and of
Nueva Galicia from 1529 to 1534, President of the first
Royal Audiencia of Mexico (High Court) from 1528 to 1530. He founded several cities in Northwestern
Originally a bodyguard of
Charles V of Spain, he was sent to Mexico to counterbalance the influence of the leader of the
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire,
Hernán Cortés, since the King worried he was becoming too powerful. As Governor of Pánuco, Guzmán cracked down hard on the supporters of Cortés, stripping him and his supporters of property and rights. He conducted numerous expeditions of conquest into the northwestern areas of Mexico, enslaving thousands of Indians and shipping them to the Caribbean colonies. In the resulting power struggles where he also made himself an enemy of important churchmen, Guzmán came out the loser.
In 1537, he was arrested for treason, abuse of power and mistreatment of the indigenous inhabitants of his territories, and he was sent to Spain in shackles. His subsequent reputation, in scholarship and popular discourse, has been that of a cruel, violent and irrational tyrant. His legacy has partly been colored by the fact that history was written largely by his political opponents such as
Juan de Zumárraga and
Vasco de Quiroga.