Norway

Kingdom of Norway
Kongeriket Norge  (Bokmål)
Kongeriket Noreg  (Nynorsk)
Norgga gonagasriika  (Northern Sami)
Motto: 
Enige og tro inntil Dovre faller  (Bokmål)
Einige og tru inntil Dovre fell  (Nynorsk)
"United and loyal until the mountains of Dovre crumble"
Anthem: 
Europe-Norway (orthographic projection).svg
Europe-Norway.svg
Location of the  Kingdom of Norway  (green)

in Europe  (green & dark grey)

Location of the Kingdom of Norway and its integral overseas areas and dependencies: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Bouvet Island, Peter I Island, and Queen Maud Land
Capital
and largest city
Oslo
59°56′N 10°41′E / 59°56′N 10°41′E / 59.933; 10.683
Official languages
Official minority languages
Writing systemLatin
Ethnic groups

Indigenous status:

Minority status:[4]

DemonymNorwegian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Harald V
Erna Solberg
Tone W. Trøen
Toril Marie Øie
LegislatureStorting
History
872
• Kingdom of Norway (Greatest indep. extent)
1263
1397
1524
25 February 1814
17 May 1814
4 November 1814
7 June 1905
9 April 1940
24 April 1940
1 February 1942
8 May 1945
Area
• Total
385,203 km2 (148,728 sq mi)[6] (67tha)
• Water (%)
5.2b
Population
• 2018 estimate
Increase 5,302,778[7]
• Density
15.8/km2 (40.9/sq mi) (213th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$397 billion[8] (46th)
• Per capita
$74,065[8] (4th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$443 billion[8] (22nd)
• Per capita
$82,711[8] (3rd)
Gini (2014)Negative increase 23.5[9]
low · 1st
HDI (2017)Increase 0.953[10]
very high · 1st
CurrencyNorwegian krone (NOK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+47
ISO 3166 codeNO
Internet TLD.noc
  1. Does not include Svalbard and Jan Mayen. (With the territories, it is the 61st largest country at 385,178 square kilometers)
  2. This percentage is for the mainland, Svalbard, and Jan Mayen. This percentage counts glaciers as "land". It's calculated as 19,940.14/(365,246.17+19,940.14).[citation needed]
  3. Two more TLDs have been assigned, but are not used: .sj for Svalbard and Jan Mayen; .bv for Bouvet Island.

Norway (Norwegian: About this sound Norge (Bokmål) or About this sound Noreg (Nynorsk); Northern Sami: Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northwestern Europe whose core territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula; the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard are also part of the Kingdom of Norway.[note 1] The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land.

Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres (148,747 sq mi) and a population of 5,302,778 (as of April 2018).[12] The country shares a long eastern border with Sweden (1,619 km or 1,006 mi long). Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, and the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea.

King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg became prime minister in 2013 and was reelected in September 2017. Erna Solberg replaced Jens Stoltenberg who was the prime minister between 2000 and 2001 and 2005–2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution. The kingdom was established as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,145 years, and the list of Norwegian monarchs includes over sixty kings and earls. From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, and from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden.

Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities. The Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the European Union and the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, and the Nordic Council; a member of the European Economic Area, the WTO, and the OECD; and a part of the Schengen Area.

Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, and its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals.[13] The Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood, and fresh water. The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product (GDP).[14] On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East.[15][16]

The country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists.[17] On the CIA's GDP (PPP) per capita list (2015 estimate) which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven.[18] It has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of USD 1 trillion.[19] Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position also held previously between 2001 and 2006.[20] It also has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking.[21][22][23] Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017[24] and currently ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, and the Democracy Index.[25] Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world.[26]

Etymology

Opening of Ohthere's Old English account, translated: "Ohthere told his lord Ælfrede king that he lived northmost of all Norwegians…"

Norway has two official names: Norge in Bokmål and Noreg in Nynorsk. The English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", which is how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway[27][28] similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.[29] The Anglo-Saxons of Britain also referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land.[27][28]

There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway originally had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was originally norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, and contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" (from Old Norse suðr) for (Germany), and austrvegr "eastern way" (from austr) for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone.[30] In the 10th century many norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area that was later called Normandy from norðmann (norseman or Scandinavian[31][32]), although not a Norwegian possession.[33] In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Norway, Sweden or Denmark.[34] Until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn (northmen) while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn (eastmen).[35]

According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" (Old English nearu) or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land ("narrow way"). The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would then have been due to later folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; since 2016 it as also advocated by language student and activist Klaus Johan Myrvoll and was adopted by philology professor Michael Schulte.[27][28] The form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, and still has the same meaning.[27][28] Among other arguments in favour of the theory, it is pointed out that the word has a long vowel in Skaldic poetry and is not attested with <ð> in any native Norse texts or inscriptions (the earliest runic attestations have the spellings nuruiak and nuriki). This resurrected theory has received some pushback by other scholars on various grounds, e. g. the uncontroversial presence of the element norðr in the ethnonym norðrmaðr "Norseman, Norwegian person" (modern Norwegian nordmann), and the adjective norrǿnn "northern, Norse, Norwegian", as well as the very early attestations of the Latin and Anglo-Saxon forms with <th>.[30][28]

In a Latin manuscript of 849, the name Northuagia is mentioned, while a French chronicle of c. 900 uses the names Northwegia and Norwegia.[36] When Ohthere of Hålogaland visited King Alfred the Great in England in the end of the ninth century, the land was called Norðwegr (lit. "Northway") and norðmanna land (lit. "Northmen's land").[36] According to Ohthere, Norðmanna lived along the Atlantic coast, the Danes around Skagerrak og Kattegat, while the Sami people (the "Fins") had a nomadic lifestyle in the wide interior.[37][38] Ohthere told Alfred that he was "the most northern of all Norwegians", presumably at Senja island or closer to Tromsø. He also said that beyond the wide wilderness in Norway's southern part was the land of the Swedes, "Svealand".[39][40]

The adjective Norwegian, recorded from c. 1600, is derived from the latinisation of the name as Norwegia; in the adjective Norwegian, the Old English spelling '-weg' has survived.[41]

After Norway had become Christian, Noregr and Noregi had become the most common forms, but during the 15th century, the newer forms Noreg(h) and Norg(h)e, found in medieval Icelandic manuscripts, took over and have survived until the modern day.[citation needed]

Other Languages
Acèh: Norwègia
Адыгэбзэ: Норуегиэ
адыгабзэ: Норвегие
Afrikaans: Noorweë
Akan: Norway
Alemannisch: Norwegen
አማርኛ: ኖርዌይ
Ænglisc: Norþweg
Аҧсшәа: Норвегиа
العربية: النرويج
aragonés: Noruega
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܢܘܪܒܝܓ
armãneashti: Norveghia
arpetan: Norvèg·e
asturianu: Noruega
Avañe'ẽ: Noruega
Aymar aru: Nurweka
azərbaycanca: Norveç
تۆرکجه: نوروژ
bamanankan: Norwij
বাংলা: নরওয়ে
Bahasa Banjar: Norwegia
Bân-lâm-gú: Lo̍k-ui
Basa Banyumasan: Norwegia
башҡортса: Норвегия
беларуская: Нарвегія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нарвэгія
भोजपुरी: नार्वे
Bikol Central: Norwey
Bislama: Norway
български: Норвегия
Boarisch: Norwegn
བོད་ཡིག: ནོར་ཝེ།
bosanski: Norveška
brezhoneg: Norvegia
буряад: Норвеги
català: Noruega
Чӑвашла: Норвеги
Cebuano: Noruwega
čeština: Norsko
Chamoru: Norge
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Noruega
Chi-Chewa: Norge
chiShona: Norway
chiTumbuka: Norway
corsu: Nurvegia
Cymraeg: Norwy
dansk: Norge
davvisámegiella: Norga
Deitsch: Norwegen
Deutsch: Norwegen
ދިވެހިބަސް: ނޯވޭ
dolnoserbski: Norwegska
ཇོང་ཁ: ནོ་ཝེ་
eesti: Norra
Ελληνικά: Νορβηγία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Nurvégia
español: Noruega
Esperanto: Norvegio
estremeñu: Noruega
euskara: Norvegia
eʋegbe: Norway
فارسی: نروژ
Fiji Hindi: Norway
føroyskt: Noreg
français: Norvège
Frysk: Noarwegen
Fulfulde: Norwees
furlan: Norvegje
Gaeilge: An Iorua
Gaelg: Norlynn
Gagauz: Norvegiya
Gàidhlig: Nirribhidh
galego: Noruega
贛語: 挪威
Gĩkũyũ: Nowĩ
ગુજરાતી: નોર્વે
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: नॉर्वे
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Nò-vî
한국어: 노르웨이
Hausa: Norway
Hawaiʻi: Nolewai
հայերեն: Նորվեգիա
हिन्दी: नॉर्वे
hornjoserbsce: Norwegska
hrvatski: Norveška
Igbo: Norway
Ilokano: Norwega
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: নরৱে
Bahasa Indonesia: Norwegia
interlingua: Norvegia
Interlingue: Norvegia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓄᕐᒋ/nurgi
Iñupiak: Norge
Ирон: Норвеги
isiZulu: INoki
íslenska: Noregur
italiano: Norvegia
עברית: נורווגיה
Basa Jawa: Nurwègen
kalaallisut: Norge
ಕನ್ನಡ: ನಾರ್ವೇ
Kapampangan: Norwega
къарачай-малкъар: Норвегия
ქართული: ნორვეგია
kaszëbsczi: Norweskô
қазақша: Норвегия
kernowek: Norgagh
Kinyarwanda: Noruveje
Kirundi: Norway
Kiswahili: Norwei
Kongo: Norge
Kreyòl ayisyen: Nòvèj
kurdî: Norwêc
Кыргызча: Норвегия
кырык мары: Норвеги
Ladino: Norvejia
лезги: Норвегия
لۊری شومالی: نورڤئج
latgaļu: Norvegeja
Latina: Norvegia
latviešu: Norvēģija
Lëtzebuergesch: Norwegen
lietuvių: Norvegija
Ligure: Norveggia
Limburgs: Noorwege
lingála: Norvej
Livvinkarjala: Norviegii
la .lojban.: noreg
Luganda: Noowe
lumbaart: Nurvegia
magyar: Norvégia
मैथिली: नार्वे
македонски: Норвешка
Malagasy: Norvezy
മലയാളം: നോർവെ
Malti: Norveġja
Māori: Nōwei
मराठी: नॉर्वे
მარგალური: ნორვეგია
مصرى: النرويج
مازِرونی: نروژ
Bahasa Melayu: Norway
Baso Minangkabau: Norwegia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nò̤-ŭi
Mirandés: Noruega
мокшень: Норвегие
монгол: Норвеги
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နော်ဝေနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Noruega
Dorerin Naoero: Norwei
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Norge
Nederlands: Noorwegen
Nedersaksies: Noorwegen
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: Norway
नेपाली: नर्वे
नेपाल भाषा: नर्वे
日本語: ノルウェー
Napulitano: Norvegia
нохчийн: Норвеги
Nordfriisk: Norweegen
Norfuk / Pitkern: Norwaii
norsk: Norge
norsk nynorsk: Noreg
Nouormand: Norouague
Novial: Norvegia
occitan: Norvègia
олык марий: Норвегий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ନରୱେ
Oromoo: Noorwey
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Norvegiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨਾਰਵੇ
पालि: नार्वे
Pälzisch: Norwegen
پنجابی: ناروے
Papiamentu: Noruega
پښتو: ناروې
Patois: Naawie
Перем Коми: Норвег
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប្រទេសន័រវេ
Picard: Norvège
Piemontèis: Norvegia
Tok Pisin: Nowe
Plattdüütsch: Norwegen
polski: Norwegia
Ποντιακά: Νορβηγία
português: Noruega
Qaraqalpaqsha: Norvegiya
qırımtatarca: Norvegiya
reo tahiti: Noruvetia
Ripoarisch: Norweje
română: Norvegia
Romani: Norvejiya
rumantsch: Norvegia
Runa Simi: Nurwiga
русиньскый: Норьско
русский: Норвегия
саха тыла: Норвегия
Gagana Samoa: Nouei
संस्कृतम्: नार्वे
Sängö: Nörvêzi
sardu: Norvegia
Scots: Norawa
Seeltersk: Norwegen
Sesotho: Norge
Sesotho sa Leboa: Norge
Setswana: Norway
shqip: Norvegjia
sicilianu: Norveggia
සිංහල: නෝර්වේ
Simple English: Norway
SiSwati: INoweyi
slovenčina: Nórsko
slovenščina: Norveška
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Норєгъ
ślůnski: Norwygijo
Soomaaliga: Norway
کوردی: نەرویژ
Sranantongo: Norvegikondre
српски / srpski: Норвешка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Norveška
Basa Sunda: Norwégia
suomi: Norja
svenska: Norge
Tagalog: Noruwega
தமிழ்: நோர்வே
Taqbaylit: Nuṛwij
tarandíne: Norveggie
татарча/tatarça: Норвегия
తెలుగు: నార్వే
tetun: Noruega
тоҷикӣ: Норвеж
lea faka-Tonga: Noaue
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏃᏪ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Norway
Tshivenda: Norge
Türkçe: Norveç
Türkmençe: Norwegiýa
Twi: Nɔwei
тыва дыл: Норвегия
удмурт: Норвегия
українська: Норвегія
اردو: ناروے
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: نورۋېگىيە
Vahcuengh: Nozveih
vèneto: Norveja
vepsän kel’: Norvegii
Tiếng Việt: Na Uy
Volapük: Norgän
Võro: Norra
walon: Norvedje
文言: 挪威
West-Vlams: Nôorweegn
Winaray: Noruega
Wolof: Noorwees
吴语: 挪威
Xitsonga: Norge
ייִדיש: נארוועגיע
Yorùbá: Nọ́rwèy
粵語: 挪威
Zazaki: Norwec
Zeêuws: Noorwegen
žemaitėška: Nuorvegėjė
中文: 挪威
डोटेली: नर्वे
ГӀалгӀай: Норгиче
Lingua Franca Nova: Noria