North Macedonia

Republic of North Macedonia

  • Република Северна Македонија
  • Republika e Maqedonisë së Veriut
Денес над Македонија  (Macedonian)
(English: "Today over Macedonia")
Location of  North Macedonia  (green)

in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
42°0′N 21°26′E / 42°0′N 21°26′E / 42.000; 21.433
Official languagesMacedonian[a]
  • Official regional languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Gjorge Ivanov
Zoran Zaev
Talat Xhaferi
• Independence declared
from SFR Yugoslavia
8 September 1991
• Officially recognised
by the United Nations
8 April 1993
• Official name changed
to Republic of North Macedonia
12 February 2019
• Total
25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi) (145th)
• Water (%)
• 2017[3] estimate
2,103,721 est.[3]
• 2002 census
• Density
80.1/km2 (207.5/sq mi) (122nd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$33.822 billion[4]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$12.383 billion[4]
• Per capita
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 33.6[5]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.757[6]
high · 80th
CurrencyMacedonian denar (MKD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+389
Patron saintSaint Clement of Ohrid[7]
ISO 3166 codeMK
Internet TLD

North Macedonia (Macedonian: Северна Македонија, translit. Severna Makedonija; Albanian: Maqedonia e Veriut), officially the Republic of North Macedonia (Macedonian: Република Северна Македонија, translit. Republika Severna Makedonija; Albanian: Republika e Maqedonisë së Veriut), is a country in the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in September 1991 under the name Republic of Macedonia.

The country became a member of the United Nations in April 1993, but as a result of a dispute with Greece over the name, it was admitted under the provisional description the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia[8][9] (abbreviated as FYR Macedonia and FYROM), a term that was also used by some other international organisations. In June 2018, Macedonia and Greece resolved the conflict with an agreement that the country should rename itself Republic of North Macedonia. This renaming came into effect in February 2019, with a several-months-long transition for passports, licence plates, currency, customs, border signs, and government websites, among other things.[10][11][12][13][14][15]

A landlocked country, North Macedonia has borders with Kosovo[c] to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west.[16] It constitutes approximately the northern third of the larger geographical region of Macedonia, which also comprises the neighbouring parts of northern Greece and southwestern Bulgaria. The country's geography is defined primarily by mountains, valleys, and rivers. The capital and largest city, Skopje, is home to roughly a quarter of the nation's 2.06 million inhabitants. The majority of the residents are ethnic Macedonians, a South Slavic people. Albanians form a significant minority at around 25%, followed by Turks, Romani, Serbs, Bosniaks, Aromanians, and Bulgarians.

The history of the region dates back to antiquity, beginning with the kingdom of Paeonia, probably a mixed Thraco-Illyrian polity.[17] In the late sixth century BC, the area was incorporated into the Persian Achaemenid Empire, then annexed by the kingdom of Macedonia in the fourth century BC. The Romans conquered the region in the second century BC and made it part of the much larger province of Macedonia. Τhe area remained part of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire, but was often raided and settled by Slavic tribes beginning in the sixth century of the Christian era. Following centuries of contention between the Bulgarian, Byzantine, and Serbian Empire, it was part of the Ottoman dominion from the mid-14th until the early 20th century, when following the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, the modern territory of North Macedonia came under Serbian rule. During the First World War (1915–1918) it was ruled by Bulgaria, but after the end of the war, it returned under Serbian rule as part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Later, during the Second World War (1941–1944), it was ruled by Bulgaria again, and in 1945 it was established as a constituent communist republic into the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, which it remained until its peaceful secession in 1991.

North Macedonia is a parliamentary republic and member of the UN and of the Council of Europe. Since 2005, it has also been a candidate for joining the European Union and has applied for NATO membership. One of the poorest countries in Europe, North Macedonia has made significant progress in developing an open, market-based economy.[citation needed]

Names and etymology

The state's name derives from the Greek Μακεδονία (Makedonía),[18][19] a kingdom (later, region) named after the ancient Macedonians. Their name, Μακεδόνες (Makedónes), derives ultimately from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός (makednós), meaning tall or taper,[20] which shares the same root as the adjective μακρός (makrós), meaning long, tall, or high, in ancient Greek.[21] The name is believed to have originally meant either highlanders or the tall ones, possibly descriptive of the people.[19][22][23] According to linguist Robert S. P. Beekes, both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology.[24]

Prior to June 2018, the use of the name Macedonia was disputed between Greece and the then-Republic of Macedonia. The Prespa agreement, signed by Macedonia and Greece on 17 June, saw the country change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia eight months later.[25][26] A non-binding[27] national referendum on the matter passed with 90% approval but did not reach the required 50% turnout due to a boycott, leaving the final decision with parliament to ratify the result.[28] Parliament approved of the name change on 19 October, reaching the required two-thirds majority needed to enact constitutional changes.[29] The vote to amend the constitution and change the name of the country passed on 11 January 2019 in favour of the amendment.[30][needs update] The amendment entered into force on 12 February, following the ratification of the Prespa agreement and the Protocol on the Accession of Macedonia to NATO by the Greek Parliament. Previously, on 25 January, the Greek parliament had narrowly voted to back the agreement, with 153 approving and 146 against.[31]

Prior to February 2019, in Macedonian the country name was Македонија, officially Република Македонија; in Albanian Maqedonia, officially Republika e Maqedonisë; in Turkish Makedonya, officially Makedonya Cumhuriyeti; in Romani Makedoniya, officially Republika Makedoniya; in Serbian and Bosnian Makedonija, officially Republika Makedonija; in Aromanian Machedonia, officially Republica Machedonia.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Noord-Masedonië
Alemannisch: Nordmazedonien
العربية: شمال مقدونيا
armãneashti: Republica Machedonia
Avañe'ẽ: Yvate Masendoña
azərbaycanca: Şimali Makedoniya
Bân-lâm-gú: Pak Macedonia
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Паўночная Македонія
भोजपुरी: मेसीडोनिया
Bislama: Not Macedonia
Boarisch: Noadmazedonien
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Macedonia del Norte
chiShona: Macedonia
davvisámegiella: Davvi-Makedonia
ދިވެހިބަސް: މެސެޑޯނިއާ
Esperanto: Nord-Makedonio
Fulfulde: Masedoniya
furlan: Macedonie
Gàidhlig: Masadoinia
ગુજરાતી: મેસેડોનિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: मॅसिडोनिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pet Macedonia
хальмг: Масидин Орн
hornjoserbsce: Sewjerna Makedonska
Igbo: Macedonia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মেসিডোনিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Makedonia Utara
Interlingue: Macedonia
isiZulu: IMakedoniya
kalaallisut: Makedonia
къарачай-малкъар: Шимал Македония
kaszëbsczi: Nordowô Macedoniô
Kinyarwanda: Masedoniya
Kongo: Makedonia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Repiblik d Masedoni
Кыргызча: Македония
Ladino: Makedonia
Lëtzebuergesch: Nordmazedonien
Lingua Franca Nova: Macedonia Norde
Livvinkarjala: Makedounii
македонски: Македонија
Malagasy: Masedonia
Māori: Makerōnia
მარგალური: ოორუე მაკედონია
مازِرونی: شمالی مقدونیه
Bahasa Melayu: Makedonia Utara
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Báe̤k Mā-gì-dóng
мокшень: Македоние
Dorerin Naoero: Matedoniya
Nederlands: Noord-Macedonië
Nedersaksies: Noord-Macedonie
नेपाल भाषा: म्यासेडोनिया
нохчийн: Македони
Nordfriisk: Nuurd-Matsedoonien
Norfuk / Pitkern: North Masedoenya
norsk nynorsk: Nord-Makedonia
occitan: Macedònia
олык марий: Македоний
Oromoo: Maqedooniyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Makedoniya Respublikasi
Pangasinan: Masedoniya
پنجابی: مقدونیہ
Papiamentu: Nort Macedonia
Piemontèis: Macedònia
Plattdüütsch: Noordmakedonien
Qaraqalpaqsha: Makedoniya
qırımtatarca: Şimaliy Makedoniya
русиньскый: Сѣверна Македонія
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱟᱥᱤᱰᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ
संस्कृतम्: मेसेडोनिया
Seeltersk: Makedonien
Simple English: North Macedonia
SiSwati: IMakhedoniya
slovenščina: Severna Makedonija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Сѣвєрьна Макєдонїꙗ
Sranantongo: Masedoniyakondre
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Severna Makedonija
Basa Sunda: Makédonia Kalér
Türkçe: Kuzey Makedonya
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ماكېدونىيە
Vahcuengh: Baek Macedonia
vepsän kel’: Pohjoižmakedonii
Tiếng Việt: Bắc Macedonia
文言: 北馬其頓
West-Vlams: Macedonië (land)
吴语: 北马其顿
ייִדיש: מאקעדאניע
粵語: 北馬其頓
中文: 北馬其頓