North Korea

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

  • 조선민주주의인민공화국
  • Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk
Anthem: 
(English: "The Patriotic Song")
Land controlled by North Korea shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled land shown in light green
Land controlled by North Korea shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled land shown in light green
Capital
and largest city
Pyongyang
39°2′N 125°45′E / 39°2′N 125°45′E / 39.033; 125.750
Official languagesKorean[1]
Official scriptChosŏn'gŭl[2]
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary one-party
republic[3]
Kim Jong-un[n 1]
Choe Ryong-hae[n 2]
Choe Ryong-hae
Pak Pong-ju
Kim Jae-ryong
Pak Thae-song
LegislatureSupreme People's Assembly
Formation
c. 7th century BC
18 BC
698
918
1392
12 October 1897
29 August 1910
1 March 1919
11 April 1919
• Liberation/Independence from Japan
15 August 1945
8 February 1946
• Foundation of DPRK
9 September 1948
• Chinese withdrawal
October 1958
27 December 1972
• Admitted to the United Nations
17 September 1991
Area
• Total
120,540 km2 (46,540 sq mi)[4] (97th)
• Water (%)
0.11
Population
• 2016 estimate
25,368,620[5] (52nd)
• 2008 census
24,052,231[6]
• Density
212/km2 (549.1/sq mi) (65th)
GDP (PPP)2014 estimate
• Total
$40 billion[7]
• Per capita
$1,800[8]
GDP (nominal)2015 estimate
• Total
$25 billion[9][10]
• Per capita
$1,000[10]
CurrencyKorean People's won (₩) (KPW)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Pyongyang Time[11])
Date format
  • yy, yyyy년 mm월 dd일
  • yy, yyyy/mm/dd (AD–1911 / AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+850[12]
ISO 3166 codeKP
Internet TLD.kp[13]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
North Korea.svg
"Democratic People's Republic of Korea" in Chosŏn'gŭl (top) and hancha (bottom) scripts.
Chosŏn'gŭl
Hancha
Revised RomanizationJoseon Minjujuui Inmin Gonghwaguk
McCune–ReischauerChosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk

North Korea (South Korea: 북한, MR: Puk'an, RR: Bukan, North Korea: 북조선, MR: Pukchosŏn , RR: Bukjoseon ), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or DPR Korea) (Korean: 조선민주주의인민공화국, Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok (known as the Yalu in Chinese) and Tumen rivers[14] and to the south it is bordered by South Korea, with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) separating the two. Nevertheless, North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands.[15]

In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. Negotiations on reunification failed, and in 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, and the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south. An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War (1950–1953). The Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire, but no peace treaty was signed.[16]

North Korea officially describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, and formally holds elections,[17] though said elections have been described by outside observers as sham elections.[18][19] Outside observers also generally view North Korea as a Stalinist totalitarian dictatorship,[28] particularly noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family. The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK), led by a member of the ruling family,[29] holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members.[30] Juche, an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution in 1972.[31][32] The means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services such as healthcare, education, housing and food production are subsidized or state-funded.[33] From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people,[34] and the population continues to suffer malnutrition. North Korea follows Songun, or "military-first" policy.[35] It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve and paramilitary personnel, or approximately 37% of its population. Its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the United States and India;[36] consisting of 4.8% of its population. It possesses nuclear weapons.[37][38]

The UN inquiry into human rights in North Korea concluded that, "The gravity, scale and nature of these violations reveal a state that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world".[39] The North Korean regime strongly denies most allegations, accusing international organizations of fabricating human rights abuses as part of a smear campaign with the covert intention of undermining the state, although they admit that there are human rights issues relating to living conditions which the regime is attempting to correct.[40][41][42][43]

In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, the sovereign state is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77 and the ASEAN Regional Forum.[44]

Etymology

The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo (also spelled Koryŏ). The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo (Koguryŏ) which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time,[45][46][47][48] ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East[49] and parts of Inner Mongolia,[50] under Gwanggaeto the Great.[51] The 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo,[52][53][54][55] and thus inherited its name, which was pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea".[56] The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.[57]

After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon (조선) in North Korea, and Hanguk (한국) in South Korea. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Korean: 조선민주주의인민공화국, Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; About this soundlisten) as its new legal name. In the wider world, because the government controls the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is commonly called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, which is officially called the Republic of Korea in English. Both governments consider themselves to be the legitimate government of the whole of Korea.[58][59] For this reason, the people do not consider themselves as 'North Koreans' but as Koreans in the same divided country as their compatriots in the South and foreign visitors are discouraged from using the former term.[60]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Noord-Korea
Alemannisch: Nordkorea
አማርኛ: ስሜን ኮርያ
Ænglisc: Norþcorēa
aragonés: Coreya d'o Norte
arpetan: Corê du Nord
asturianu: Corea del Norte
Avañe'ẽ: Yvate Koréa
azərbaycanca: Şimali Koreya
تۆرکجه: قوزئی کوره
беларуская: Паўночная Карэя
भोजपुरी: उत्तर कोरिया
Bikol Central: Korea nin Norte
български: Северна Корея
Boarisch: Noadkorea
bosanski: Sjeverna Koreja
čeština: Severní Korea
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Corea del Norte
chiShona: North Korea
chiTumbuka: North Korea
Cymraeg: Gogledd Corea
dansk: Nordkorea
davvisámegiella: Davvi-Korea
Deutsch: Nordkorea
ދިވެހިބަސް: އުތުރު ކޮރެއާ
dolnoserbski: Pódpołnocna Koreja
Ελληνικά: Βόρεια Κορέα
español: Corea del Norte
Esperanto: Nord-Koreio
estremeñu: Corea del Norti
euskara: Ipar Korea
eʋegbe: North Korea
فارسی: کره شمالی
Fiji Hindi: North Korea
føroyskt: Norðurkorea
français: Corée du Nord
Gàidhlig: Coirèa a Tuath
Gĩkũyũ: North Korea
ગુજરાતી: ઉત્તર કોરિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: उत्तर कोरिया
Hawaiʻi: Kōlea ʻĀkau
hornjoserbsce: Sewjerna Koreja
hrvatski: Sjeverna Koreja
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ঔয়াং কোরিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Korea Utara
interlingua: Corea del Nord
Interlingue: Nord-Korea
Iñupiak: Nigiq Korea
íslenska: Norður-Kórea
italiano: Corea del Nord
kalaallisut: Korea Avannarleq
Kapampangan: Pangulung Korea
kernowek: Korea Gledh
Kiswahili: Korea Kaskazini
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kore dinò
لۊری شومالی: کوراْ شومالی
latviešu: Ziemeļkoreja
Limburgs: Noord-Korea
lingála: Koré ya Nola
Lingua Franca Nova: Corea Norde
Livvinkarjala: Pohjas Korea
la .lojban.: berti zei .tcosyn
lumbaart: Corea del Nòrd
magyar: Észak-Korea
македонски: Северна Кореја
Malagasy: Korea Avaratra
მარგალური: ოორუე კორეა
مازِرونی: شمالی کره
Bahasa Melayu: Korea Utara
Baso Minangkabau: Korea Utara
Nāhuatl: Corea Mictlampa
Dorerin Naoero: Ripubrikit Engame Korea
Nederlands: Noord-Korea
Nedersaksies: Noord-Korea
नेपाल भाषा: उत्तर कोरिया
Napulitano: Corea d''o Nord
Nordfriisk: Nuurdkorea
Norfuk / Pitkern: North Koriya
norsk: Nord-Korea
norsk nynorsk: Nord-Korea
Novial: Nord Korea
олык марий: Йӱдвел Корей
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Koreya Xalq Demokratik Respublikasi
پنجابی: اتلا کوریا
Papiamentu: Nort Korea
Patois: Naat Koria
ភាសាខ្មែរ: កូរ៉េខាងជើង
Piemontèis: Coréa dël Nòrd
Tok Pisin: Not Koria
Plattdüütsch: Noordkorea
português: Coreia do Norte
Qaraqalpaqsha: Arqa Koreya
qırımtatarca: Şimaliy Koreya
Ripoarisch: Nordkorea
română: Coreea de Nord
romani čhib: Nordutni Koreya
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱠᱳᱨᱤᱭᱟ
संस्कृतम्: उत्तर कोरिया
sicilianu: Corea dû Nord
Simple English: North Korea
slovenščina: Severna Koreja
Soomaaliga: Waqooyiga Kuuriya
српски / srpski: Северна Кореја
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sjeverna Koreja
Basa Sunda: Koréa Kalér
svenska: Nordkorea
தமிழ்: வட கொரியா
Taqbaylit: Kurya n Ugafa
Türkçe: Kuzey Kore
тыва дыл: Соңгу Көрей
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Korea Utara
українська: Північна Корея
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شىمالىي چاۋشيەن
Xitsonga: North Korea
ייִדיש: צפון קארעע
Zeêuws: Noôrd-Korea
žemaitėška: Šiaurės Kuoriejė