Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "MDCCCXXXIII" above, followed by (smaller) "OB•" then "MDCCCXCVI" below.
Awarded for Discoveries in physiology or medicine that led to benefit for humankind
Location Stockholm, Sweden
Presented by Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet
Reward(s) 9 million SEK (2017) [1]
First awarded 1901
Currently held by Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young (2017)
Website nobelprize.org

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine ( Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, in his will. Nobel was personally interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for progress through scientific discoveries in laboratories. The Nobel Prize is presented to the recipient(s) at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal provides the same profile of Alfred Nobel as depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature; its reverse side is unique to this medal. The most recent Nobel prize was announced by Karolinska Institute on October 2, 2017 and has been awarded to three Americans – Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael Young – for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm. [2]

As of 2015, 106 Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded to 198 men and 12 women. The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1901 to the German physiologist Emil von Behring, for his work on serum therapy and the development of a vaccine against diphtheria. The first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Gerty Cori, received it in 1947 for her role in elucidating the metabolism of glucose, important in many aspects of medicine, including treatment of diabetes.

Some awards have been controversial. This includes one to António Egas Moniz in 1949 for the prefrontal leucotomy, bestowed despite protests from the medical establishment. Other controversies resulted from disagreements over who was included in the award. The 1952 prize to Selman Waksman was litigated in court, and half the patent rights awarded to his co-discoverer Albert Schatz who was not recognized by the prize. The 1962 prize awarded to James D. Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins for their work on DNA structure and properties did not acknowledge the contributing work from others, such as Oswald Avery and Rosalind Franklin who had died by the time of the nomination. Since the Nobel Prize rules forbid nominations of the deceased, longevity is an asset, one prize being awarded as long as 50 years after the discovery. Also forbidden is awarding any one prize to more than three recipients, and since in the last half century there has been an increasing tendency for scientists to work as teams, this rule has resulted in controversial exclusions.

Background

Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and set up his own laboratories.

Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden into a family of engineers. [3] He was a chemist, engineer and inventor who amassed a fortune during his lifetime, most of it from his 355 inventions of which dynamite is the most famous. [4] He was interested in experimental physiology and set up his own labs in France and Italy to conduct experiments in blood transfusions. Keeping abreast of scientific findings, he was generous in his donations to Ivan Pavlov's laboratory in Russia, and was optimistic about the progress resulting from scientific discoveries made in laboratories. [5]

In 1888, Nobel was surprised to read his own obituary, titled "The merchant of death is dead", in a French newspaper. As it happened, it was Nobel's brother Ludvig who had died, but Nobel, unhappy with the content of the obituary and concerned that his legacy would reflect poorly on him, was inspired to change his will. [6] In his last will, Nobel requested that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature. [7] Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died at the age of 63. [8] Because his will was contested, it was not approved by the Storting (Norwegian Parliament) until 26 April 1897. [9]

After Nobel's death, the Nobel Foundation was set up to manage the assets of the bequest. [10] In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by Swedish King Oscar II. [11] [12] According to Nobel's will, the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, a medical school and research center, is responsible for the Prize in Physiology or Medicine. [13] Today, the prize is commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine. [14]

Other Languages
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: চিকিৎসাবিজ্ঞানে নোবেল পুরস্কার
norsk nynorsk: Nobelprisen i medisin
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nobelova nagrada za fiziologiju ili medicinu