Nobel Peace Prize

Nobel Peace Prize
A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "MDCCCXXXIII" above, followed by (smaller) "OB•" then "MDCCCXCVI" below.
Awarded forOutstanding contributions in peace
LocationOslo, Norway
Presented byNorwegian Nobel Committee on behalf of the estate of Alfred Nobel
Reward(s)9 million SEK (2017)[1]
First awarded10 December 1901; 117 years ago (1901-12-10)[2]
Currently held byDenis Mukwege and Nadia Murad (2018)
Most awardsNobelprize.org

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901,[3] it has been awarded annually (with some exceptions) to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".[4]

As per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year. The prize was formerly awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law (1947–1989), the Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905–1946), and the Parliament (1901–1904).

Due to its political nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history, been the subject of controversies.

Background

According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who in the preceding year "shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".[5]

Alfred Nobel's will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament.

Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category. As he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear. According to the Norwegian Nobel Committee, his friendship with Bertha von Suttner, a peace activist and later recipient of the prize, profoundly influenced his decision to include peace as a category.[6] Some Nobel scholars suggest it was Nobel's way to compensate for developing destructive forces. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite, both of which were used violently during his lifetime. Ballistite was used in war[7] and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s.[8] Nobel was also instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel producer into an armaments company.

It is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, which was ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobel's death. The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize, as it did not have the same militaristic traditions as Sweden. It also notes that at the end of the 19th century, the Norwegian parliament had become closely involved in the Inter-Parliamentary Union's efforts to resolve conflicts through mediation and arbitration.[6]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Friedensnobelpreis
azərbaycanca: Nobel sülh mükafatı
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нобэлеўская прэмія міру
한국어: 노벨 평화상
Lëtzebuergesch: Friddensnobelpräis
مازِرونی: نوبل صلح جایزه
Bahasa Melayu: Hadiah Keamanan Nobel
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nobel Huò-bìng Ciōng
norsk nynorsk: Nobels fredspris
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tinchlik boʻyicha Nobel mukofoti
português: Nobel da Paz
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nobelova nagrada za mir
Tiếng Việt: Giải Nobel Hòa bình