Nicolás Maduro

Nicolás Maduro
Nicolás Maduro 2019.jpg
Maduro in 2019
46th President of Venezuela
Assumed office
5 March 2013
Interim: 5 March 2013 – 19 April 2013
Disputed with Juan Guaidó from 11 January 2019
Vice Presidents
Preceded byHugo Chávez
Succeeded byJuan Guaidó (acting) (recognized by the National Assembly)
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
Assumed office
17 September 2016
Preceded byHassan Rouhani
President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations
In office
23 April 2016 – 21 April 2017
Preceded byTabaré Vázquez
Succeeded byMauricio Macri
Vice President of Venezuela
In office
13 October 2012 – 5 March 2013
PresidentHugo Chávez
Preceded byElías Jaua
Succeeded byJorge Arreaza
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
9 August 2006 – 15 January 2013
PresidentHugo Chávez
Preceded byAlí Rodríguez Araque
Succeeded byElías Jaua
President of the National Assembly of Venezuela
In office
5 January 2005 – 7 August 2006
Preceded byFrancisco Ameliach
Succeeded byCilia Flores
Personal details
Born
Nicolás Maduro Moros

(1962-11-23) 23 November 1962 (age 56)
Caracas, Venezuela
Political partyUnited Socialist Party (2007–present)
Fifth Republic Movement (before 2007)
Spouse(s)Adriana Guerra Angulo (div.)
Cilia Flores (m. 2013)
ChildrenNicolás Maduro Guerra
ResidenceMiraflores Palace
SignatureOfficial website

Nicolás Maduro Moros (/; Spanish: [nikoˈlas maˈduɾo ˈmoɾos];[1] born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 46th President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.

Starting off as a bus driver, Maduro rose to become a trade union leader before being elected to the National Assembly in 2000. He was appointed to a number of positions within the Venezuelan government under Chávez, ultimately being made Foreign Minister in 2006. He was described during this time as the "most capable administrator and politician of Chávez's inner circle".[2] After Chávez's death was announced on 5 March 2013, Maduro assumed the powers and responsibilities of the President. A special election was held on 14 April 2013 to elect a new President, and Maduro won with 50.62% of the votes as the candidate of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela. He was formally inaugurated on 19 April.[3] He has ruled Venezuela by decree since 19 November 2013 through powers granted to him by the Venezuela legislature.[4][5][6][7] His presidency has coincided with a decline in Venezuela's socioeconomic status, with crime, inflation, poverty and hunger increasing; analysts have attributed Venezuela's decline to both Chávez and Maduro's economic policies,[8][9][10][11] while Maduro has blamed speculation and an "economic war" waged by his political opponents.[12][13][14][15][16][17] Shortages in Venezuela and decreased living standards resulted in protests beginning in 2014 that escalated into daily marches nationwide, resulting in 43 deaths and a decrease in Maduro's popularity.[18][19][20][21] Maduro's loss of popularity saw the election of an opposition-led National Assembly in 2015 and a movement toward recalling Maduro in 2016, though Maduro still maintains power through loyal political bodies, such as the Supreme Court, National Electoral Council and the military.[18][19][22]

After entering a constitutional crisis when the Supreme Tribunal removed power from the National Assembly, months of protests occurred in 2017, leading Maduro to call for a rewrite of the constitution. The Constituent Assembly of Venezuela was elected into office 30 July 2017, with the majority of its elected members being pro-Maduro.[23][24] On 20 May 2018, Maduro was reelected into the presidency in what the Atlantic Council and Financial Times described as a show election[25][26] which had the lowest voter turnout in Venezuela's modern history.[27] Like Chávez, Maduro has been accused of authoritarian leadership,[28] with mainstream media describing him as a dictator, especially following the suspension of the recall movement that was directed towards him.[29][30][31] Following the 2017 Venezuelan Constituent Assembly election, the United States sanctioned Maduro, freezing his U.S. assets and prohibited him from entering the country, stating that he was a "dictator".[32] The majority of nations in the Americas and the Western world also refused to recognize the Constituent Assembly and the validity of his 2018 reelection, initiating their own sanctions against him and his administration as well, although regional allies as well as China and Russia offered support and denounced the interference in Venezuela's domestic affairs.[33][34][35][36]

Despite encouragement to resign as president when his first term expired on 10 January 2019, President Maduro was inaugurated by Maikel Moreno, Chief Justice of the Supreme Tribunal of Venezuela. This resulted in widespread condemnation, with the National Assembly invoking a state of emergency, and some nations removing their embassies from Venezuela. Minutes after taking oath, the Organization of American States approved a resolution in a special session of its Permanent Council in which Maduro was declared illegitimate as President of Venezuela, urging that new elections be summoned.[37] With their belief that his election was illegitimate, they claimed that by retaking power, Maduro was converting Venezuela into an illegitimate de facto dictatorship.[38][39][40][41]

Biography

Family background

Nicolás Maduro Moros was born on 23 November 1962 in Caracas, Venezuela, into a working-class family.[42][43][44]

His father, Nicolás Maduro García, who was a prominent trade union leader,[45] died in a motor vehicle accident on 22 April 1989. His mother, Teresa de Jesús Moros, was born in Cúcuta, a Colombian border town at the boundary with Venezuela on "the 1st of June of 1929, as it appears in the National Registry of Colombia".[46]

Nicolás Maduro was raised as a Roman Catholic, although in 2012 it was reported that he was a follower of Indian guru Sathya Sai Baba and previously visited the guru in India in 2005.[47]

Racially, Maduro has indicated that he identifies as mestizo ("mixed [race]"), stating that he includes as a part of his mestizaje ("racial mixture") admixture from the Indigenous peoples of the Americas and Africans.[48] He stated in a 2013 interview that "my grandparents were Jewish, from a Sephardic Moorish background, and converted to Catholicism in Venezuela".[49]

Officially, Maduro was born into a leftist family, with his father being a union leader[42][50] and "militant dreamer of the Movimiento Electoral del Pueblo (MEP)".[51] Maduro was raised in Calle 14, a street in Los Jardines, El Valle, a working-class neighborhood on the western outskirts of Caracas.[46] The only male of four siblings, he had "three sisters, María Teresa, Josefina, and Anita".[51]

Marriages and family

Maduro has been married twice. His first marriage was to Adriana Guerra Angulo, with whom he had his only son, Nicolás Maduro Guerra.[52][53] Maduro Guerra, also known as "Nicolasito", was appointed to several senior government posts: Chief of the Presidency's Special Inspectors Body, head of the National Film School, and a seat in the National Assembly.[54]

He later married Cilia Flores, a lawyer and politician who replaced Maduro as President of the National Assembly in August 2006, when he resigned to become Minister of Foreign Affairs, becoming the first woman to serve as President of the National Assembly.[55] The two had been in a romantic relationship since the 1990s when Flores was Hugo Chávez's lawyer following the 1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts[56] and were married in July 2013 months after Maduro became president.[57] While they have no children together, Maduro has three step-children from his wife's first marriage to Walter Ramón Gavidia; Walter Jacob, Yoswel, and Yosser.[58]

Other Languages
aragonés: Nicolás Maduro
asturianu: Nicolás Maduro
azərbaycanca: Nikolas Maduro
беларуская: Нікалас Мадура
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нікаляс Мадура
Bikol Central: Nicolás Maduro
български: Николас Мадуро
bosanski: Nicolás Maduro
čeština: Nicolás Maduro
español: Nicolás Maduro
Esperanto: Nicolás Maduro
français: Nicolás Maduro
Bahasa Indonesia: Nicolás Maduro
Interlingue: Nicolás Maduro
íslenska: Nicolás Maduro
italiano: Nicolás Maduro
Basa Jawa: Nicolás Maduro
latviešu: Nikolass Maduro
Lëtzebuergesch: Nicolás Maduro
lietuvių: Nicolás Maduro
lumbaart: Nicolás Maduro
Malagasy: Nicolás Maduro
Bahasa Melayu: Nicolás Maduro
Nederlands: Nicolás Maduro
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Nicolás Maduro
Papiamentu: Nicolás Maduro
português: Nicolás Maduro
română: Nicolás Maduro
Simple English: Nicolás Maduro
slovenčina: Nicolás Maduro
српски / srpski: Николас Мадуро
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nicolás Maduro
татарча/tatarça: Nikolas Maduro
Türkçe: Nicolás Maduro
українська: Ніколас Мадуро
Tiếng Việt: Nicolás Maduro
粵語: 馬杜羅
žemaitėška: Nicolás Maduro