Nicolás Maduro

Nicolás Maduro
Nicolás Maduro, president of Venezuela (2016) cropped.jpg
Maduro in 2016.
46th President of Venezuela
Assumed office
19 April 2013[a]
Disputed with Juan Guaidó
since 23 January 2019
Vice President
Preceded byHugo Chávez
Chair of the Non-Aligned Movement[1]
In office
17 September 2016 – 2019
Preceded byHassan Rouhani
President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations
In office
23 April 2016 – 21 April 2017
Preceded byTabaré Vázquez
Succeeded byMauricio Macri
Vice President of Venezuela
In office
13 October 2012 – 5 March 2013
PresidentHugo Chávez
Preceded byElías Jaua
Succeeded byJorge Arreaza
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
9 August 2006 – 15 January 2013
PresidentHugo Chávez
Preceded byAlí Rodríguez Araque
Succeeded byElías Jaua
President of the National Assembly of Venezuela
In office
5 January 2005 – 7 August 2006
Preceded byFrancisco Ameliach
Succeeded byCilia Flores
Personal details
Born
Nicolás Maduro Moros

(1962-11-23) 23 November 1962 (age 56)
Caracas, Venezuela
Political partyUnited Socialist Party (2007–present)
Fifth Republic Movement (before 2007)
Spouse(s)Adriana Guerra Angulo (div.)
Cilia Flores (m. 2013)
ChildrenNicolás Maduro Guerra
ResidenceMiraflores Palace
SignatureOfficial website

Nicolás Maduro Moros (/; Spanish pronunciation: [nikoˈlas maˈduɾo ˈmoɾos] (About this soundlisten);[b] born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician serving as President of Venezuela since 2013, and disputed president since January 2019. AP News reported that "familiar geopolitical sides" had formed in the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, with allies Russia, China, Iran, Syria, and Cuba supporting Maduro, and the US, Canada, and most of Western Europe supporting Juan Guaidó as interim president.[2][3]

Beginning his working life as a bus driver, Maduro rose to become a trade union leader before being elected to the National Assembly in 2000. He was appointed to a number of positions under President Hugo Chávez and was described in 2012 by the Wall Street Journal as the "most capable administrator and politician of Chávez's inner circle".[4] He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013 under Chávez. After Chávez's death was announced on 5 March 2013, Maduro assumed the presidential powers and responsibilities. A special presidential election was held in 2013, which Maduro won with 50.62% of the vote as the United Socialist Party of Venezuela candidate. He has ruled Venezuela by decree since 19 November 2013 through powers granted to him by the pre-2015 Venezuela legislature.[5][6]

Shortages in Venezuela and decreased living standards led to protests beginning in 2014 that escalated into daily marches nationwide, repression of dissent and a decline in Maduro's popularity.[7][8][9] According to The New York Times, Maduro's administration was held "responsible for grossly mismanaging the economy and plunging the country into a deep humanitarian crisis" and attempting to "crush the opposition by jailing or exiling critics, and using lethal force against antigovernment protesters".[10] An opposition-led National Assembly was elected in 2015 and a movement toward recalling Maduro began in 2016; Maduro maintained power through the Supreme Tribunal, the National Electoral Council and the military.[7][8][11] The Supreme Tribunal removed power from the elected National Assembly, resulting in a constitutional crisis and protests in 2017. Maduro called for a rewrite of the constitution, and the Constituent Assembly of Venezuela was elected in 2017, under what many—including Venezuela's chief prosecutor Luisa Ortega[12] and Smartmatic, the company that ran the voting machines[13]—considered irregular voting conditions;[14] the majority of its members were pro-Maduro.[15][16] On 20 May 2018, presidential elections were called prematurely;[c] opposition leaders had been jailed, exiled or forbidden to run, there was no international observation, and tactics to suggest voters could lose their jobs or social welfare if they did not vote for Maduro were used.[20][21] The majority of nations in the Western world did not recognize the Constituent Assembly election or the validity of Maduro's 2018 reelection;[22][23] the Canadian,[24][25] Panamanian,[26] and the United States governments sanctioned Maduro.[27]

Maduro has been described as a "dictator",[d] and an Organization of American States (OAS) report determined that crimes against humanity have been committed during his presidency.[28] Maduro allies including China, Cuba, Russia,[29] Iran, and Turkey support and denounce what they call interference in Venezuela's domestic affairs.[30][31] Amid widespread condemnation,[32][33][34] President Maduro was sworn in on 10 January 2019, and the President of the National Assembly, Juan Guaidó, was declared the interim President by that body on 23 January 2019.[35][36] Maduro's government states that the crisis is a "coup d'état led by the United States to topple him and control the country's oil reserves."[37][38][39] Guaidó denies the coup allegations, saying peaceful volunteers back his movement.[40]

Personal life

Nicolás Maduro Moros was born on 23 November 1962 in Caracas, Venezuela, into a working-class family.[41][42][43]

His father, Nicolás Maduro García, who was a prominent trade union leader,[44] died in a motor vehicle accident on 22 April 1989. His mother, Teresa de Jesús Moros, was born in Cúcuta, a Colombian border town at the boundary with Venezuela on "the 1st of June of 1929, as it appears in the National Registry of Colombia".[45] He was born into a leftist family[41][46] and "militant dreamer of the Movimiento Electoral del Pueblo (MEP)".[47] Maduro was raised in Calle 14, a street in Los Jardines, El Valle, a working-class neighborhood on the western outskirts of Caracas.[45] The only male of four siblings, he had "three sisters, María Teresa, Josefina, and Anita".[47]

Maduro was raised as a Roman Catholic, although in 2012 it was reported that he was a follower of Indian guru Sathya Sai Baba and previously visited the guru in India in 2005.[48] Racially, Maduro has indicated that he identifies as mestizo ("mixed [race]"), stating that he includes as a part of his mestizaje ("racial mixture") admixture from the Indigenous peoples of the Americas and Africans.[49] He stated in a 2013 interview that "my grandparents were Jewish, from a Sephardic Moorish background, and converted to Catholicism in Venezuela".[50]

Diosdado Cabello beside Maduro and his wife, Cilia Flores

Maduro has been married twice. His first marriage was to Adriana Guerra Angulo, with whom he had his only son, Nicolás Maduro Guerra,[51][52] also known as "Nicolasito", who was appointed to several senior government posts (Chief of the Presidency's Special Inspectors Body, head of the National Film School, and a seat in the National Assembly).[53] He later married Cilia Flores, a lawyer and politician who replaced Maduro as President of the National Assembly in August 2006, when he resigned to become Minister of Foreign Affairs, becoming the first woman to serve as President of the National Assembly.[54] The two had been in a romantic relationship since the 1990s when Flores was Hugo Chávez's lawyer following the 1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts[55] and were married in July 2013 months after Maduro became president.[56] While they have no children together, Maduro has three step-children from his wife's first marriage to Walter Ramón Gavidia; Walter Jacob, Yoswel, and Yosser.[57]

Maduro is a fan of John Lennon's music and his campaigns for peace and love. Maduro claims to have been inspired by music and counter-culture of 1960s and 70s, mentioning also Robert Plant and Led Zeppelin.[58]

Other Languages
aragonés: Nicolás Maduro
asturianu: Nicolás Maduro
azərbaycanca: Nikolas Maduro
беларуская: Нікалас Мадура
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нікаляс Мадура
Bikol Central: Nicolás Maduro
български: Николас Мадуро
bosanski: Nicolás Maduro
brezhoneg: Nicolás Maduro
čeština: Nicolás Maduro
español: Nicolás Maduro
Esperanto: Nicolás Maduro
føroyskt: Nicolás Maduro
français: Nicolás Maduro
hrvatski: Nicolás Maduro
Bahasa Indonesia: Nicolás Maduro
Interlingue: Nicolás Maduro
íslenska: Nicolás Maduro
italiano: Nicolás Maduro
Basa Jawa: Nicolás Maduro
latviešu: Nikolass Maduro
Lëtzebuergesch: Nicolás Maduro
lietuvių: Nicolás Maduro
lumbaart: Nicolás Maduro
Malagasy: Nicolás Maduro
Bahasa Melayu: Nicolás Maduro
Nederlands: Nicolás Maduro
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Nicolás Maduro
Papiamentu: Nicolás Maduro
português: Nicolás Maduro
română: Nicolás Maduro
Simple English: Nicolás Maduro
slovenčina: Nicolás Maduro
slovenščina: Nicolás Maduro
српски / srpski: Николас Мадуро
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nicolás Maduro
татарча/tatarça: Nikolas Maduro
Türkçe: Nicolás Maduro
українська: Ніколас Мадуро
Tiếng Việt: Nicolás Maduro
粵語: 馬杜羅
žemaitėška: Nicolás Maduro