Nicaragua

Republic of Nicaragua
República de Nicaragua  (Spanish)
Motto: En Dios confiamos  (Spanish)
"In God We Trust" [1]
Anthem: Salve a ti, Nicaragua  (Spanish)
"Hail to Thee, Nicaragua"
Location of Nicaragua
Location of Nicaragua
Capital
and largest city
Managua
12°6′N 86°14′W / 12°6′N 86°14′W / 12.100; -86.233
Official languagesSpanish
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups (2011[2])
DemonymNicaraguan
GovernmentUnitary Dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
• President
Daniel Ortega
Rosario Murillo
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence from Spain, Mexico and the Federal Republic of Central America
• Declared
15 September 1821
• Recognized
25 July 1850
• from the First Mexican Empire
1 July 1823
31 May 1838
• Revolution
19 July 1979
• Current constitution
9 January 1987[3]
Area
• Total
130,375 km2 (50,338 sq mi) (96th)
• Water (%)
7.14
Population
• 2012 census
6,167,237[4]
• Density
51/km2 (132.1/sq mi) (155th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$35.757 billion[5]
• Per capita
$5,683[5]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$13.380 billion[5]
• Per capita
$2,126[5]
Gini (2009)45.7[6]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.658[7]
medium · 124th
CurrencyCórdoba (NIO)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+505
ISO 3166 codeNI
Internet TLD.ni

Nicaragua (ə/ (About this sound listen); Spanish: [nikaˈɾaɣwa]), officially the Republic of Nicaragua (Spanish: About this sound República de Nicaragua ), is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. Managua is the country's capital and largest city and is also the third-largest city in Central America, behind Tegucigalpa and Guatemala City. The multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European, African, and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish. Native tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak their own languages and English.

Originally inhabited by various indigenous cultures since ancient times, the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821. The Mosquito Coast followed a different historical path, with the English colonizing it in the 17th century and later coming under the British rule, as well as some minor Spanish interludes in the 19th century. It became an autonomous territory of Nicaragua in 1860 and the northernmost part of it was later transferred to Honduras in 1960. Since its independence, Nicaragua has undergone periods of political unrest, dictatorship, occupation and fiscal crisis, leading to the Nicaraguan Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s and the Contra War of the 1980s.

The mixture of cultural traditions has generated substantial diversity in folklore, cuisine, music, and literature, particularly the latter given the literary contributions of Nicaraguan poets and writers, such as Rubén Darío. Known as the "land of lakes and volcanoes",[8][9] Nicaragua is also home to the second-largest rainforest of the Americas. The country has set a goal of 90% renewable energy by the year 2020.[10] The biological diversity, warm tropical climate and active volcanoes make Nicaragua an increasingly popular tourist destination.[11][12]

Etymology

There are two prevailing theories on how the name "Nicaragua" came to be. The first is that the name was coined by Spanish colonists based on the name Nicarao,[13] who was the chieftain or cacique of a powerful indigenous tribe encountered by the Spanish conquistador Gil González Dávila during his entry into southwestern Nicaragua in 1522. This theory holds that the name Nicaragua was formed from Nicarao and agua, which means "water" in Spanish, to reference the fact that there are two large lakes and several other bodies of water within the country.[14] However, as of 2002, it was determined that the cacique's real name was Macuilmiquiztli, which meant "Five Deaths" in the Nahuatl language, rather than Nicarao.[15][16][17][18]

The second theory is that the country's name comes from any of the following Nahuatl words: nic-anahuac, which meant "Anahuac reached this far", or "the Nahuas came this far", or "those who come from Anahuac came this far"; nican-nahua, which meant "here are the Nahuas"; or nic-atl-nahuac, which meant "here by the water" or "surrounded by water".[13][14][19][20]

Other Languages
Acèh: Nikaragua
адыгабзэ: Никарагуа
Afrikaans: Nicaragua
Alemannisch: Nicaragua
አማርኛ: ኒካራጓ
Ænglisc: Nicaragua
العربية: نيكاراغوا
aragonés: Nicaragua
arpetan: Nicaragoa
asturianu: Nicaragua
Avañe'ẽ: Nikarágua
Aymar aru: Nikarwa
azərbaycanca: Nikaraqua
تۆرکجه: نیکاراقوئه
bamanankan: Nikaragwa
Bân-lâm-gú: Nicaragua
башҡортса: Никарагуа
беларуская: Нікарагуа
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нікарагуа
भोजपुरी: निकारागुआ
Bikol Central: Nikaragua
български: Никарагуа
Boarisch: Nicaragua
bosanski: Nikaragva
brezhoneg: Nicaragua
буряад: Никарагуа
català: Nicaragua
Cebuano: Nicaragua
čeština: Nikaragua
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Nicaragua
chiShona: Nicaragua
Cymraeg: Nicaragwa
dansk: Nicaragua
davvisámegiella: Nicaragua
Deutsch: Nicaragua
ދިވެހިބަސް: ނިކަރާގުއާ
dolnoserbski: Nikaragua
डोटेली: निकाराग्वा
eesti: Nicaragua
Ελληνικά: Νικαράγουα
эрзянь: Никарагуа
español: Nicaragua
Esperanto: Nikaragvo
estremeñu: Nicarágua
euskara: Nikaragua
eʋegbe: Nicaragua
Fiji Hindi: Nicaragua
føroyskt: Nikaragua
français: Nicaragua
Frysk: Nikaragûa
Gaeilge: Nicearagua
Gagauz: Nikaragua
Gàidhlig: Niocaragua
galego: Nicaragua
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: निकारागुआ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Nicaragua
한국어: 니카라과
հայերեն: Նիկարագուա
हिन्दी: निकारागुआ
hornjoserbsce: Nikaragua
hrvatski: Nikaragva
Ilokano: Nicaragua
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: নিকারাগুয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Nikaragua
interlingua: Nicaragua
Interlingue: Nicaragua
isiZulu: Nicaragua
íslenska: Níkaragva
italiano: Nicaragua
עברית: ניקרגואה
Basa Jawa: Nikaragua
Kabɩyɛ: Nikaraguwa
ಕನ್ನಡ: ನಿಕರಾಗುವ
Kapampangan: Nicaragua
ქართული: ნიკარაგუა
қазақша: Никарагуа
kernowek: Nikaragwa
Kinyarwanda: Nikaragwa
Kiswahili: Nikaragua
Kongo: Nikaragwa
Kreyòl ayisyen: Nikaragwa
kurdî: Nîkaragua
Кыргызча: Никарагуа
кырык мары: Никарагуа
Ladino: Nikaragua
Latina: Nicaragua
latviešu: Nikaragva
Lëtzebuergesch: Nicaragua
lietuvių: Nikaragva
Ligure: Nicaragua
Limburgs: Nicaragua
lingála: Nikalagwa
Lingua Franca Nova: Nicaragua
Livvinkarjala: Nikaragua
la .lojban.: nikaraguas
lumbaart: Nicaragua
magyar: Nicaragua
македонски: Никарагва
Malagasy: Nikaragoa
മലയാളം: നിക്കരാഗ്വ
Malti: Nikaragwa
მარგალური: ნიკარაგუა
مازِرونی: نیکاراگوئه
Bahasa Melayu: Nicaragua
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nicaragua
монгол: Никарагуа
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နီကာရာဂွါနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Nicanahuac
Dorerin Naoero: Nikaragua
Nederlands: Nicaragua
नेपाली: निकाराग्वा
日本語: ニカラグア
нохчийн: Никарагуа
Nordfriisk: Nikaraagua
Norfuk / Pitkern: Nicaragua
norsk: Nicaragua
norsk nynorsk: Nicaragua
Novial: Nikaragua
occitan: Nicaragua
олык марий: Никарагуа
Oromoo: Nikaraagu'aa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Nikaragua
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨਿਕਾਰਾਗੁਆ
پنجابی: نکاراگوا
Papiamentu: Nicaragua
Patois: Nikaragua
Piemontèis: Nicaragua
Plattdüütsch: Nicaragua
polski: Nikaragua
português: Nicarágua
Qaraqalpaqsha: Nikaragua
qırımtatarca: Nikaragua
română: Nicaragua
Runa Simi: Nikarawa
русский: Никарагуа
саха тыла: Никарагуа
संस्कृतम्: निकारगुवा
sardu: Nicaràgua
Scots: Nicaragua
Seeltersk: Nicaragua
shqip: Nikaragua
sicilianu: Nicaragua
Simple English: Nicaragua
SiSwati: INikhalaga
slovenčina: Nikaragua
slovenščina: Nikaragva
ślůnski: Ńikaragua
Soomaaliga: Nikaragua
کوردی: نیکاراگوا
српски / srpski: Никарагва
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nikaragva
Basa Sunda: Nikaragua
suomi: Nicaragua
svenska: Nicaragua
Tagalog: Nicaragua
Taqbaylit: Nikaragwa
татарча/tatarça: Никарагуа
తెలుగు: నికరాగ్వా
tetun: Nikarágua
тоҷикӣ: Никарагуа
Türkçe: Nikaragua
українська: Нікарагуа
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: نىكاراگۇئا
Vahcuengh: Nicaragua
vèneto: Nicaragua
vepsän kel’: Nikaragua
Tiếng Việt: Nicaragua
Volapük: Nikaraguvän
Võro: Nicaragua
文言: 尼加拉瓜
West-Vlams: Nicaragua
Winaray: Nicaragua
吴语: 尼加拉瓜
ייִדיש: ניקאראגוא
Yorùbá: Nikarágúà
粵語: 尼加拉瓜
Zazaki: Nikaragua
Zeêuws: Nicaragua
žemaitėška: Nėkaragva
中文: 尼加拉瓜