New Zealand

New Zealand
Aotearoa  (Māori)
A map of the hemisphere centred on New Zealand, using an orthographic projection.
Location of New Zealand, including outlying islands, its territorial claim in the Antarctic, and Tokelau
CapitalWellington
41°17′S 174°27′E / 41°17′S 174°27′E / -41.283; 174.450
Largest cityAuckland
Official languages
Ethnic groups (2013)
DemonymNew Zealander
Kiwi (informal)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Dame Patsy Reddy
Jacinda Ardern
LegislatureParliament
(House of Representatives)
Stages of Independence from the United Kingdom
7 May 1856
• Dominion
26 September 1907
25 November 1947
Area
• Total
268,021 km2 (103,483 sq mi) (75th)
• Water (%)
1.6[n 4]
Population
• October 2018 estimate
4,913,050[5] (120th)
• 2013 census
4,242,048
• Density
17.9/km2 (46.4/sq mi) (203rd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$199 billion[6]
• Per capita
$40,266[6]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$206 billion[6]
• Per capita
$41,616[6]
Gini (2014)33.0[7]
medium · 22nd
HDI (2017)Increase 0.917[8]
very high · 16th
CurrencyNew Zealand dollar ($) (NZD)
Time zoneUTC+12 (NZST[n 5])
• Summer (DST)
UTC+13 (NZDT[n 6])
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+64
ISO 3166 codeNZ
Internet TLD.nz

New Zealand (Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.

Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a Dominion; it gained full independence in 1947, but the British monarch remained the head of state. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.8 million is of European descent; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration. The official languages are English, Māori, and NZ Sign Language, with English being very dominant.

New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, health, education, and economic freedom. The country underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy. The service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, and agriculture. International tourism is a significant source of revenue.

Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister, who is currently Jacinda Ardern. Queen Elizabeth II is the country's head of state and is represented by a governor-general, currently Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes. The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus mechanism, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the Pacific Islands Forum.

Etymology

Brown square paper with Dutch writing and a thick red, curved line
Detail from a 1657 map showing the western coastline of "Nova Zeelandia"

Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General" (Dutch parliament). He wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain",[10] referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616.[11][12] In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland.[13][14] British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand.[15]

Aotearoa (pronounced ə/; often translated as "land of the long white cloud")[16] is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa originally referring to just the North Island.[17] Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui (the fish of Māui) for the North Island and Te Waipounamu (the waters of greenstone) or Te Waka o Aoraki (the canoe of Aoraki) for the South Island.[18] Early European maps labelled the islands North (North Island), Middle (South Island) and South (Stewart Island / Rakiura).[19] In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm.[15] The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, and names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu.[20] For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used, or both can be used together.[20]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: ЩIэ Зилэнд
Afrikaans: Nieu-Seeland
Alemannisch: Neuseeland
አማርኛ: ኒው ዚላንድ
Ænglisc: Nīwe Sǣland
العربية: نيوزيلندا
aragonés: Nueva Zelanda
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܢܝܘ ܙܝܠܢܕ
অসমীয়া: নিউজিলেণ্ড
asturianu: Nueva Zelanda
Avañe'ẽ: Selánda Pyahu
azərbaycanca: Yeni Zelandiya
تۆرکجه: نیوزیلند
bamanankan: New Zealand
Bân-lâm-gú: New Zealand
башҡортса: Яңы Зеландия
беларуская: Новая Зеландыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Новая Зэляндыя
भोजपुरी: न्यूजीलैंड
Bikol Central: Nueva Zelanda
Bislama: Niusilan
български: Нова Зеландия
Boarisch: Neiseeland
bosanski: Novi Zeland
brezhoneg: Zeland-Nevez
буряад: Шэнэ Зеланд
català: Nova Zelanda
Чӑвашла: Çĕнĕ Зеланди
Cebuano: Nueva Zelanda
čeština: Nový Zéland
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Nueva Zelanda
chiShona: New Zealand
Cymraeg: Seland Newydd
davvisámegiella: Ođđa-Selánda
Deutsch: Neuseeland
ދިވެހިބަސް: ނިއުޒިލޭންޑު
dolnoserbski: Nowoseelandska
Ελληνικά: Νέα Ζηλανδία
español: Nueva Zelanda
Esperanto: Nov-Zelando
estremeñu: Nueva Zelanda
فارسی: نیوزیلند
Fiji Hindi: New Zealand
føroyskt: Nýsæland
Gàidhlig: Sealainn Nuadh
ગુજરાતી: ન્યૂઝીલેન્ડ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: न्यूझीलंड
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: New Zealand
한국어: 뉴질랜드
հայերեն: Նոր Զելանդիա
hornjoserbsce: Nowoseelandska
hrvatski: Novi Zeland
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: নিউজিল্যান্ড
Bahasa Indonesia: Selandia Baru
interlingua: Nove Zelanda
Interlingue: Nov-Zeland
isiZulu: INyuzilandi
íslenska: Nýja-Sjáland
italiano: Nuova Zelanda
עברית: ניו זילנד
Basa Jawa: Niu Sélan
kalaallisut: New Zealand
Kapampangan: New Zealand
къарачай-малкъар: Джангы Зеландия
kaszëbsczi: Nowô Zelandzkô
kernowek: Mordir Nowydh
Kinyarwanda: Nuveli Zelande
Kiswahili: Nyuzilandi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Nouvèl Zelann
kurdî: Nû Zelenda
Кыргызча: Жаңы Зеландия
кырык мары: У Зеланди
latviešu: Jaunzēlande
Lëtzebuergesch: Neiséiland
Limburgs: Nui-Zieland
Livvinkarjala: Uuzi Zelandii
la .lojban.: zis. poi cnino
lumbaart: Növa Zelanda
magyar: Új-Zéland
македонски: Нов Зеланд
Malagasy: Novely Zelandy
മലയാളം: ന്യൂസീലൻഡ്
Māori: Aotearoa
მარგალური: ახალი ზელანდია
مازِرونی: نیوزلند
Bahasa Melayu: New Zealand
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: New Zealand
монгол: Шинэ Зеланд
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နယူးဇီလန်နိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Niu Djiran
Nederlands: Nieuw-Zeeland
Nedersaksies: Ni'j-Zeelaand
नेपाल भाषा: न्यु जिल्यान्द
Napulitano: Nòva Zelanna
Nordfriisk: Nei-Sialun
Norfuk / Pitkern: Nyuu Ziilan
norsk nynorsk: New Zealand
Novial: Novi Selande
occitan: Nòva Zelanda
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yangi Zelandiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨਿਊਜ਼ੀਲੈਂਡ
پنجابی: نیوزی لینڈ
Papiamentu: Nueva Zelandia
Patois: Nyuu Ziilant
ភាសាខ្មែរ: នូវែលសេឡង់
Piemontèis: Neuva Zelanda
Tok Pisin: Niu Silan
Plattdüütsch: Niegseeland
Ποντιακά: Νέα Ζηλανδία
português: Nova Zelândia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Jan'a Zelandiya
qırımtatarca: Yañı Zelandiya
reo tahiti: Aotearoa
română: Noua Zeelandă
rumantsch: Nova Zelanda
Runa Simi: Musuq Silanda
русиньскый: Новый Зеланд
саха тыла: Саҥа Зеландия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱱᱤᱣᱡᱤᱞᱮᱱᱰ
Gagana Samoa: Niu Sila
संस्कृतम्: न्यूजिलैण्ड्
Seeltersk: Näi-Seelound
Sesotho sa Leboa: New Zealand
sicilianu: Nova Zilanna
Simple English: New Zealand
slovenčina: Nový Zéland
slovenščina: Nova Zelandija
ślůnski: Nowo Zylandyjo
Soomaaliga: New Zealand
کوردی: نیوزیلاند
српски / srpski: Нови Зеланд
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Novi Zeland
Basa Sunda: Selandia Anyar
svenska: Nya Zeeland
Tagalog: New Zealand
Taqbaylit: Ziland Tamaynut
tarandíne: Nuève Zelanne
татарча/tatarça: Яңа Зеландия
Türkçe: Yeni Zelanda
Türkmençe: Täze Zelandiýa
українська: Нова Зеландія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: يېڭى زېلاندىيە
Vahcuengh: Saen Saelanz
vèneto: Nova Zełanda
vepsän kel’: Uz' Zelandii
Tiếng Việt: New Zealand
Volapük: Nula-Seleäns
文言: 紐西蘭
West-Vlams: Nieuw-Zêeland
吴语: 新西兰
ייִדיש: ניו זילאנד
Yorùbá: New Zealand
粵語: 紐西蘭
žemaitėška: Naujuojė Zelandėjė
中文: 新西兰
ГӀалгӀай: Керда Зеланди
Lingua Franca Nova: Zeland Nova