New South Wales

New South Wales
alt text for flag alt text for coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Slogan or nickname The First State
The Premier State
Motto(s) Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites
(Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine)
Map of Australia with New South Wales highlighted
Other Australian states and territories
Coordinates 32°9′42″S 147°1′4″E / 32°9′42″S 147°1′4″E / -32.16167; 147.01778
Capital city Sydney
Demonym New South Welshman [1] [2]
Government Constitutional monarchy
 • Governor David Hurley
 • Premier Gladys Berejiklian ( LP)
Australian state  
 • Established as Colony 26 January 1788
 • Responsible government 6 June 1856
 • Became Australian state 1 January 1901
 • Australia Act 3 March 1986
Area  
 • Total 809,444 km² ( 5th)
312,528 sq mi
 • Land 800,642 km²
309,130 sq mi
 • Water 8,802 km² (1.09%)
3,398 sq mi
Population
(March 2017) [3]
 
 • Population 7,837,700 ( 1st)
 • Density 9.62/km² ( 3rd)
24.9 /sq mi
Elevation  
 • Highest point Mount Kosciuszko
2,228 m (7,310 ft)
Gross state product
(2014–15)
 
 • Product ($m) $486,482 [4] ( 1st)
 • Product per capita $67,841 (3rd)
Time zone(s) UTC+10 ( AEST)
UTC+11 ( AEDT)
UTC+9:30 ( ACST)
( Broken Hill)
UTC+10:30 ( ACDT)
( Broken Hill)
UTC+10:30 (LHST)
(Lord Howe Island)
UTC+11:00 (LHDT)
(Lord Howe Island)
Federal representation  
 • House seats 48/150
 • Senate seats 12/76
Abbreviations  
 • Postal NSW
 • ISO 3166-2 AU-NSW
Emblems  
 • Floral Waratah
(Telopea speciosissima) [5]
 • Animal Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
 • Bird Kookaburra
(Dacelo gigas)
 • Fish Blue groper
(Achoerodus viridis)
 • Mineral or gemstone Black Opal
 • Fossil Mandageria fairfaxi
 • Colours Sky blue
(Pantone 291) [6]
Website www.nsw.gov.au
Footnotes Coordinates [7]
Emblems [8]
286 kg (630 lb) gold nugget unearthed in 1872 from Hill End during the Gold Rush

New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In March 2017, the population of New South Wales was over 7.8 million, [9] making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 4.67 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. [10] Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen. [1] [2]

The Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825. The colony also included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia. However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales.

Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory.

History

Aborigines (indigenous people)

The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. [11]

The Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. [12] Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land which was roughly surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale. [12]

The Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas.

1788 British settlement

The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia. In his original journal(s) covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales". [13]

The first British settlement was made by what is known in Australian history as the First Fleet; this was led by Captain Arthur Phillip, who assumed the role of governor of the settlement on arrival in 1788 until 1792. [14] [15]

After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel (later Major-General) Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. [16] During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves, churches and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today.

Mid-19th century

During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania (proclaimed as a separate colony named Van Diemen's Land in 1825), South Australia (1836), Victoria (1851) and Queensland (1859). Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840. In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand.

Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle (chapter 19 of the 11th edition) records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, and the future prospects of the country.

1901 Federation of Australia

At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders, even on the Murray River.

Travelling from NSW to Victoria in those days was very difficult. Supporters of federation included the NSW premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech (given in Tenterfield) was pivotal in gathering support for NSW involvement. Edmund Barton, later to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution.

In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in NSW, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the NSW government under Premier George Reid (popularly known as "yes–no Reid" because of his constant changes of opinion on the issue) had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority which was not met.

In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland (but not Western Australia). All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. NSW met the conditions its government had set for a yes vote. As a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within NSW but not closer than 100 miles (161 km) from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. Eventually the area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by NSW when Canberra was selected.

Early 20th century

In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed during the war fell with the resumption of international trade. Farmers became increasingly discontented with the fixed prices paid by the compulsory marketing authorities set up as a wartime measure by the Hughes government. In 1919 the farmers formed the Country Party, led at national level by Earle Page, a doctor from Grafton, and at state level by Michael Bruxner, a small farmer from Tenterfield.

The Great Depression, which began in 1929, ushered in a period of political and class conflict in New South Wales. The mass unemployment and collapse of commodity prices brought ruin to both city workers and to farmers. The beneficiary of the resultant discontent was not the Communist Party, which remained small and weak, but Jack Lang's Labor populism. Lang's second government was elected in November 1930 on a policy of repudiating New South Wales' debt to British bondholders and using the money instead to help the unemployed through public works. This was denounced as illegal by conservatives, and also by James Scullin's federal Labor government. The result was that Lang's supporters in the federal Caucus brought down Scullin's government, causing a second bitter split in the Labor Party. In May 1932 the Governor, Sir Philip Game dismissed his government. The subsequent election was won by the conservative opposition.

Japanese POW camp in Cowra, 1944, several weeks before the Cowra breakout

By the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the differences between New South Wales and the other states that had emerged in the 19th century had faded as a result of federation and economic development behind a wall of protective tariffs.[ citation needed] New South Wales continued to outstrip Victoria as the centre of industry, and increasingly of finance and trade as well.[ citation needed] Labor returned to office under the moderate leadership of William McKell in 1941 and remained in power for 24 years. World War II saw another surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a war economy, and also the elimination of unemployment.

Post-war period

Labor stayed in power until 1965. Towards the end of its term in power it announced a plan for the construction of an opera/arts facility on Bennelong Point. The design competition was won by Jørn Utzon. Controversy over the cost of what would eventually become the Sydney Opera House became a political issue and was a factor in the eventual defeat of Labor in 1965 by the conservative Liberal Party led by Sir Robert Askin. Sir Robert remains a controversial figure with supporters claiming him to be reformist especially in terms of reshaping the NSW economy. Others though, regard the Askin era as synonymous with corruption with Askin the head of a network involving NSW police and SP bookmaking (Goot).

A short-lived South Maitland Railway (SMR) Railcar travelling between Weston and Abermain, 1962. The SMR is notable for being the second last system in Australia to use steam haulage.

In the late 1960s a secessionist movement in the New England region of the state led to a referendum on the issue. The new state would have consisted of much of northern NSW including Newcastle. The referendum was narrowly defeated and, as of 2010, there are no active or organised campaigns for new states in NSW.

Askin's resignation in 1975 was followed by a number of short lived premierships by Liberal Party leaders. When a general election came in 1976 the ALP under Neville Wran were returned to power. Wran was able to transform this narrow one seat victory into landslide wins (known as Wranslide) in 1978 and 1981.[ citation needed]

After winning a comfortable though reduced majority in 1984, Wran resigned as premier and left parliament. His replacement Barrie Unsworth struggled to emerge from Wran's shadow and lost a 1988 election against a resurgent Liberal Party led by Nick Greiner. Unsworth was replaced as ALP leader by Bob Carr. Initially Greiner was a popular leader instigating reform such as the creation of the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). Greiner called a snap election in 1991 which the Liberals were expected to win. However the ALP polled extremely well and the Liberals lost their majority and needed the support of independents to retain power.

Greiner was accused (by ICAC) of corrupt actions involving an allegation that a government position was offered to tempt an independent (who had defected from the Liberals) to resign his seat so that the Liberal party could regain it and shore up its numbers. Greiner resigned but was later cleared of corruption. His replacement as Liberal leader and Premier was John Fahey whose government secured Sydney the right to host the 2000 Summer Olympics. In the 1995 election, Fahey's government lost narrowly and the ALP under Bob Carr returned to power.

The Sydney Opera House was completed in 1973 and has become a World Heritage Site.

Like Wran before him Carr was able to turn a narrow majority into landslide wins at the next two elections (1999 and 2003). During this era, NSW hosted the 2000 Sydney Olympics which were internationally regarded as very successful, and helped boost Carr's popularity. Carr surprised most people by resigning from office in 2005. He was replaced by Morris Iemma, who remained Premier after being re-elected in the March 2007 state election, until he was replaced by Nathan Rees in September 2008. [17] Rees was subsequently replaced by Kristina Keneally in December 2009. [18] Keneally's government was defeated at the 2011 state election and Barry O'Farrell became Premier on 28 March. On 17 April 2014 O'Farrell stood down as Premier after misleading an ICAC investigation concerning a gift of a bottle of wine. The Liberal Party then elected Treasurer Mike Baird as party leader and Premier. Baird resigned as Premier on 23 January 2017, and was replaced by Gladys Berejiklian.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Nieu-Suid-Wallis
العربية: نيوساوث ويلز
azərbaycanca: Yeni Cənubi Uels
Bân-lâm-gú: Sin Lâm Wales
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Новы Паўднёвы Ўэйлз
български: Нови Южен Уелс
brezhoneg: Sukembre-Nevez
Esperanto: Novsudkimrio
Fiji Hindi: New South Wales
Gàidhlig: New South Wales
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: New South Wales
Bahasa Indonesia: New South Wales
Basa Jawa: New South Wales
Kapampangan: New South Wales
Kiswahili: New South Wales
latviešu: Jaundienvidvelsa
Lëtzebuergesch: New South Wales
македонски: Нов Јужен Велс
Bahasa Melayu: New South Wales
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sĭng Nàng Wales
Nederlands: Nieuw-Zuid-Wales
Nordfriisk: New South Wales
Norfuk / Pitkern: Nyuu Sauth Wiels
norsk nynorsk: New South Wales
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yangi janubiy uels
português: Nova Gales do Sul
Gagana Samoa: Niu Saute Uelese
Seeltersk: New South Wales
sicilianu: New South Wales
Simple English: New South Wales
slovenčina: Nový Južný Wales
slovenščina: Novi Južni Wales
Soomaaliga: New South Wales
српски / srpski: Нови Јужни Велс
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Novi Južni Wales
Tiếng Việt: New South Wales