Netherlands

Netherlands

Nederland  (Dutch)
Motto: 'Je maintiendrai'  (French)[a]
'Ik zal handhaven'  (Dutch)
'I will uphold'
Anthem: 'Wilhelmus'  (Dutch)
'William'
Location of the  European Netherlands  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)
Location of the  European Netherlands  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Location of the  Dutch special municipalities  (green)
Location of the  Dutch special municipalities  (green)
Capital
and largest city
Amsterdam[c]
52°22′N 4°53′E / 52°22′N 4°53′E / 52.367; 4.883
Government seatThe Hague[c]
Official languagesDutch[2]
Official regional languages
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups
(2017[5])
Religion
(2015[6])
Demonym(s)Dutch
Sovereign state Kingdom of the Netherlands
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Willem-Alexander
Mark Rutte (VVD)
Hugo de Jonge (CDA)
Kajsa Ollongren (D66)
Carola Schouten (CU)
Thom de Graaf (D66)
LegislatureStates General
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from Spanish Netherlands
26 July 1581
30 January 1648
• Kingdom established
16 March 1815
5 May 1945
10 December 1945
15 December 1954
• Incorporation of the Caribbean Netherlands
10 October 2010
Area
• Total
41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi) (131st)
• Water (%)
18.41
Population
• December 2018 estimate
17,283,008 Increase[7] (66th)
• Density
416.2/km2 (1,078.0/sq mi) (30th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$966.742 billion[8] (28th)
• Per capita
$56,435 (13th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$945.327 billion[8] (17th)
• Per capita
$55,185 (13th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 27.1[9]
low · 15th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.931[10]
very high · 10th
Currency
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
UTC−4 (AST)[f]
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
UTC−4 (AST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code
ISO 3166 codeNL
Internet TLD

The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərlɑnt] (About this soundlisten), West Frisian: Nederlân) is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba), it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve provinces and borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, the United Kingdom, and Germany.[12] The five largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht (forming the Randstad megalopolis) and Eindhoven (leading the Brabantse Stedenrij). Amsterdam is the country's capital,[13] while The Hague holds the seat of the States General, Cabinet and Supreme Court.[14] The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe and the world's largest outside Asia.[15]

'Netherlands' literally means 'lower countries', referring to its low land and flat geography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) above sea level.[16] Most of the areas below sea level are the result of land reclamation beginning in the 16th century, resulting in large areas known as polders that amount to nearly 17% of the country's territory. With a population of 17.25 million living within a total area of roughly 41,500 square kilometres (16,000 sq mi), of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres (13,000 sq mi), the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products after the United States, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, and intensive agriculture.[17][18]

The Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, and has been administered as a parliamentary constitutional monarchy since 1848, with a unitary structure. A policy of pillarisation historically segregated society and institutions between Catholics, Calvinists and socialists, but Dutch society is today one of the most cosmopolitan in the world. The country has a long history of social tolerance and is generally regarded as a liberal country, having legalised abortion, prostitution, and euthanasia, while maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, and became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001.

The Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD, and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. It hosts several intergovernmental organizations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, which is consequently dubbed 'the world's legal capital.'[19] Its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. One of the world's most prosperous countries, the Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom,[20] economic freedom,[21] human development, and quality of life.[22][i] Its strong performance is owed in large part to a generous welfare state that provides universal healthcare, public education and infrastructure, and a range of social benefits. It is also known for its polder model, the country's leading socioeconomic model based on consensus decision-making.

Etymology

The Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and widely varying names in different languages. There is diversity even within languages. This holds also for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, Holland, home to the capital city of Amsterdam; government headquarters at The Hague; and Europe's largest port Rotterdam. Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "England" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, however, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com".[24]

The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces, formerly a single province, and earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region. The emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, which is now considered either incorrect,[25][26] informal,[27] or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is widely used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.[28]

The region called the Low Countries (comprising Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) and the Country of the Netherlands, have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder (or lage), Nieder, Nether (or low) and Nedre (in Germanic languages) and Bas or Inferior (in Romance languages) are in use in places all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Boven, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea. The geographical location of the upper region, however, changed over time tremendously, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior (nowadays part of Belgium and the Netherlands) and upstream Germania Superior (nowadays part of Germany). The designation 'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries.[29][30] But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France.

The Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà (~ the lands over here) for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà (~ the lands over there) for their original homeland: Burgundy in present-day east-central France.[31] Under Habsburg rule, Les pays de par deçà developed in pays d'embas (lands down-here),[32] a deictic expression in relation to other Habsburg possessions like Hungary and Austria. This was translated as Neder-landen in contemporary Dutch official documents.[33] From a regional point of view, Niderlant was also the area between the Meuse and the lower Rhine in the late Middle Ages. The area known as Oberland (High country) was in this deictic context considered to begin approximately at the nearby higher located Cologne.

From the mid-sixteenth century on, the "Low Countries" and the "Netherlands" lost their original deictic meaning. They were probably the most commonly used names, besides Flanders, another pars pro toto for the Low Countries, especially in Romance language speaking Europe. The Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) divided the Low Countries into an independent northern Dutch Republic (or Latinised Belgica Foederata, "Federated Netherlands", the precursor state of the Netherlands) and a Spanish controlled Southern Netherlands (Latinised Belgica Regia, "Royal Netherlands", the precursor state of Belgium). The Low Countries today is a designation that includes the countries the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, although in most Romance languages, the term "Low Countries" is used as the name for the Netherlands specifically. It is used synonymous with the more neutral and geopolitical term Benelux.

Other Languages
Acèh: Blanda
Адыгэбзэ: Нидерлэндхэр
Afrikaans: Nederland
Alemannisch: Niederlande
አማርኛ: ኔዘርላንድ
Ænglisc: Niðerland
العربية: هولندا
aragonés: Países Baixos
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܗܘܠܢܕܐ
armãneashti: Olanda
arpetan: Payis-Bâs
asturianu: Países Baxos
Avañe'ẽ: Tetãnguéra Yvýi
авар: Гьоланд
azərbaycanca: Niderland
تۆرکجه: هولند
Bahasa Banjar: Walanda
Bân-lâm-gú: Hô-lân
Basa Banyumasan: Landa
башҡортса: Нидерланд
беларуская: Нідэрланды
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нідэрлянды
भोजपुरी: नीदरलैंड
Bikol Central: Nederlands
Bislama: Netherlands
български: Нидерландия
Boarisch: Holland
བོད་ཡིག: ཧོ་ལན།
bosanski: Holandija
brezhoneg: Izelvroioù
буряад: Нидерланд
Чӑвашла: Нидерландсем
čeština: Nizozemsko
Chamoru: Netherlands
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Holanda
Chi-Chewa: Netherlands
chiShona: Netherlands
chiTumbuka: Netherlands
dansk: Holland
davvisámegiella: Vuolleeatnamat
Deitsch: Holland
Deutsch: Niederlande
ދިވެހިބަސް: ނެދަލޭންޑު
dolnoserbski: Nižozemska
eesti: Holland
Ελληνικά: Ολλανδία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Ulànda
español: Países Bajos
Esperanto: Nederlando
estremeñu: Paisis Baxus
euskara: Herbehereak
eʋegbe: Netherlands
فارسی: هلند
Fiji Hindi: The Netherlands
føroyskt: Niðurlond
Frysk: Nederlân
Fulfulde: Holannda
furlan: Paîs Bas
Gaeilge: An Ísiltír
Gagauz: Niderland
Gàidhlig: Na Tìrean Ìsle
ГӀалгӀай: Голланди
贛語: 荷蘭
Gĩkũyũ: Netharandi
ગુજરાતી: નેધરલેંડ
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌽𐌹𐌸𐍂𐌰𐌻𐌰𐌽𐌳
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: नेदरलँड्स
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hò-làn
한국어: 네덜란드
Hausa: Holand
Hawaiʻi: Hōlani
հայերեն: Նիդերլանդներ
हिन्दी: नीदरलैण्ड
hornjoserbsce: Nižozemska
hrvatski: Nizozemska
Bahasa Hulontalo: Walanta
Ilokano: Olanda
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: নেদারল্যান্ড
Bahasa Indonesia: Belanda
interlingua: Paises Basse
Interlingue: Nederland
isiXhosa: ENetherlands
isiZulu: Netherlands
italiano: Paesi Bassi
עברית: הולנד
Basa Jawa: Walanda
Kabɩyɛ: Peyibaa
kalaallisut: Hollandi
Kapampangan: Paises Bahes
къарачай-малкъар: Нидерландла
қазақша: Нидерланд
kernowek: Iseldiryow
Kinyarwanda: Ubuholandi
Kiswahili: Uholanzi
Kongo: Pays-Bas
Kreyòl ayisyen: Peyiba
kurdî: Holenda
Кыргызча: Нидерланд
лакку: Нидирланд
لۊری شومالی: ھولند
latgaļu: Nīderlandeja
Latina: Nederlandia
latviešu: Nīderlande
Lëtzebuergesch: Holland
Ligure: Paixi Basci
Limburgs: Nederland
lingála: Holanda
Lingua Franca Nova: Nederland
Livvinkarjala: Alangomuat
la .lojban.: nederland
lumbaart: Paes Bass
magyar: Hollandia
македонски: Холандија
Malagasy: Nederlandy
Māori: Hōrana
მარგალური: ნიდერლანდი
مازِرونی: هلند
Bahasa Melayu: Belanda
Baso Minangkabau: Balando
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hò̤-làng
мокшень: Недерлантт
монгол: Нидерланд
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နယ်သာလန်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Tlanitlalpan
Dorerin Naoero: Niterand
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Oladi
Nederlands: Nederland
Nedersaksies: Nederlaand
नेपाल भाषा: नेदरल्यान्द्स्
日本語: オランダ
Napulitano: Ulanna
нохчийн: Нидерландаш
Nordfriisk: Nederlönje
Norfuk / Pitkern: Dem Nethiland
norsk: Nederland
norsk nynorsk: Nederland
Nouormand: Pays Bas
Novial: Nederlande
олык марий: Нидерланде
Oromoo: Neezerlaandi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Niderlandlar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨੀਦਰਲੈਂਡ
Pälzisch: Niederlande
Pangasinan: Olánda
پنجابی: نیدرلینڈز
Papiamentu: Hulanda
پښتو: هالنډ
Patois: Nedalanz
Перем Коми: Недерланд
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប្រទេសហូឡង់
Picard: Bas-Païs
Piemontèis: Pais Bass
Tok Pisin: Netherlands
Plattdüütsch: Nedderlannen (Europa)
Ποντιακά: Ολλανδία
português: Países Baixos
Qaraqalpaqsha: Niderlandiya
qırımtatarca: Felemenk
Ripoarisch: Niederlande
română: Țările de Jos
Romani: Olanda
rumantsch: Pajais Bass
Runa Simi: Urasuyu
русиньскый: Нідерланды
русский: Нидерланды
саха тыла: Недерланд
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱱᱮᱫᱟᱨᱞᱮᱱᱰᱥ
Gagana Samoa: Netalani
Seeltersk: Niederlounde
Sesotho: Hôlanê
Sesotho sa Leboa: Netherlands
shqip: Holanda
sicilianu: Paisi Vasci
Simple English: Netherlands
SiSwati: IDashi
slovenčina: Holandsko
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Нидєрландꙑ
Soomaaliga: Holland
کوردی: ھۆلەند
Sranantongo: Bakrakondre
српски / srpski: Холандија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nizozemska
Basa Sunda: Walanda
suomi: Alankomaat
Tagalog: Netherlands
Taqbaylit: Timura n Wadda
tarandíne: Pajèsere Vasce
татарча/tatarça: Нидерланд
tetun: Olanda
тоҷикӣ: Нидерланд
lea faka-Tonga: Holani
Tsetsêhestâhese: Netherlands
Türkçe: Hollanda
Türkmençe: Niderlandlar
удмурт: Нидерланд
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Belanda
українська: Нідерланди
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: گوللاندىيە
Vahcuengh: Hwzlanz
vèneto: Paéxi Basi
vepsän kel’: Alamad
Tiếng Việt: Hà Lan
Volapük: Nedän
Võro: Holland
walon: Bas Payis
文言: 荷蘭
West-Vlams: Holland
Winaray: Nederlandes
Wolof: Olaand
吴语: 尼德兰
Xitsonga: Netherlands
ייִדיש: האלאנד
粵語: 荷蘭
Zazaki: Hollanda
Zeêuws: Nederland
žemaitėška: Nīderlandā
中文: 荷兰