Nepal

Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

  • सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल (Nepali)
  • Saṅghīya Lokatāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl
Anthem: सयौं थुँगा फूलका (Nepali)
Made of hundreds of flowers (English)
Location of Nepal
Location of Nepal
Capital
and largest city
Kathmandu
28°10′N 84°15′E / 28°10′N 84°15′E / 28.167; 84.250
All languages used in Nepal
Ethnic groups
(2011)
Religion
81.3% Hinduism
9% Buddhism
4.4% Islam
3% Kirant
1.4% Christianity
0.4% Animism
0.5% Irreligion[1][2]
Demonym(s)Nepali (official), Nepalese
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Nanda Kishor Pun
Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli
Cholendra Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
Ganesh Prasad Timilsina
Krishna Bahadur Mahara[3]
LegislatureFederal Parliament
National Assembly
House of Representatives
Formation
25 September 1768[4]
18 May 2006[5]
28 May 2008
20 September 2015
Area
• Total
147,181 km2 (56,827 sq mi) (93rd)
• Water (%)
2.8
Population
• 2016 estimate
28,982,771[6] (48th)
• 2011 census
26,494,504[7]
• Density
180/km2 (466.2/sq mi) (62nd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$84 billion[8]
• Per capita
$2,842[8]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$27 billion[8]
• Per capita
$919[8]
Gini (2010)Negative increase 32.8[9]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.574[10]
medium · 149th
CurrencyNepalese rupee Rs (Nepali: रू) (NPR)
Time zoneUTC+05:45 (Nepal Standard Time)
DST not observed
Driving sideleft
Calling code+977
ISO 3166 codeNP
Internet TLD.np

Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल [neˈpal]), officially Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal,[11] is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area.[7][12] It borders China in the north and India in the south, east and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains,[13] subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the capital and the largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic country with Nepali as the official language.

The name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal. Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans,[14] and was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala. The Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and later formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India.[15][16][17] Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005. The Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy.[18]

The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, affirms Nepal as a secular federal parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.[19] Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, and friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960.[20][21] Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), of which it is a founding member. Nepal is also a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative. The military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia; it is notable for its Gurkha history, particularly during the world wars, and has been a significant contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations.

Etymology

Before the unification of Nepal, the Kathmandu valley was known as Nepal.[a] The precise origin of the term Nepāl is uncertain. A number of plausible theories are found in religious as well as academic texts. Nepal appears in ancient Indian literary texts dated as far back as the fourth century BC. However, an absolute chronology can not be established, as even the oldest texts may contain anonymous contributions dating as late as the early modern period. On the other hand, academic attempts to provide a plausible theory suffer from lack of a complete picture of history, and insufficient understanding of linguistics or of relevant Indo-European and Tibeto-Burman languages.[23]

According to Hindu mythology, Nepal derives its name from an ancient Hindu sage called Ne, referred to variously as Ne Muni or Nemi. According to Pashupati Purana, as a place protected by Ne, the country in the heart of the Himalayas came to be known as Nepal.[b] According to Nepal Mahatmya,[c] Nemi was charged with protection of the country by Pashupati.[24] According to Buddhist mythology, Manjushri Bodhisattva drained a primordial lake of serpents to create the Nepal valley and proclaimed that Adi-Buddha Ne would take care of the community that would settle it. As the cherished of Ne, the valley would be called Nepal.[25] According to Gopalarajvamshavali, the genealogy of ancient Gopala dynasty compiled circa 1380s, Nepal is named after Nepa the cowherd, the founder of the Nepali scion of the Abhiras. In this account, the cow that issued milk to the spot, at which Nepa discovered the Jyotirlinga of Pashupatinath upon investigation, was also named Ne.[23]

Norwegian Indologist Christian Lassen proposed that Nepala was a compound of Nipa (foot of a mountain) and -ala (short suffix for alaya which means abode), and therefore, Nepala meant "abode at the foot of the mountain". He considered Ne Muni to be a fabrication.[26] Indologist Sylvain Levi found Lassen's theory untenable but had no theories of his own, only suggesting that either Newara is a vulgarism of sanskritic Nepala, or Nepala is Sanskritisation of the local ethnic.[27] Levi's view has some support in later works.[28][29][30] The idea that Nepal is a polished form of Newar, the name of the indigenous people of Kathmandu valley, may be gaining support,[23] but it leaves the question of etymology unanswered. One theory proposes that Nepa is a Tibeto-Burman stem consisting of Ne (cattle) and Pa (keeper), which alludes to the fact that early inhabitants of the valley were Gopalas (cowherds) and Mahispalas (buffalo-herds).[23] Suniti Kumar Chatterji thought that 'Nepal' originated from Tibeto-Burman roots- Ne, of uncertain meaning (as multiple possibilities exist), and pala or bal, whose meaning is lost entirely.[31]

Other Languages
Acèh: Nèpal
адыгабзэ: Непал
Afrikaans: Nepal
Alemannisch: Nepal
አማርኛ: ኔፓል
Ænglisc: Nepal
العربية: نيبال
aragonés: Nepal
armãneashti: Nepal
arpetan: Nèpal
অসমীয়া: নেপাল
asturianu: Nepal
Avañe'ẽ: Nepal
azərbaycanca: Nepal
تۆرکجه: نپال
বাংলা: নেপাল
Banjar: Nepal
Bân-lâm-gú: Nepal
Basa Banyumasan: Nepal
башҡортса: Непал
беларуская: Непал
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нэпал
भोजपुरी: नेपाल
Bikol Central: Nepal
български: Непал
Boarisch: Nepal
བོད་ཡིག: བལ་ཡུལ།
bosanski: Nepal
brezhoneg: Nepal
буряад: Балба
català: Nepal
Чӑвашла: Непал
Cebuano: Nepal
čeština: Nepál
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Nepal
chiShona: Nepal
chiTumbuka: Nepal
Cymraeg: Nepal
dansk: Nepal
davvisámegiella: Nepal
Deutsch: Nepal
ދިވެހިބަސް: ނޭޕާލް
dolnoserbski: Nepal
डोटेली: नेपाल
ཇོང་ཁ: བལ་ཡུལ་
eesti: Nepal
Ελληνικά: Νεπάλ
español: Nepal
Esperanto: Nepalo
estremeñu: Nepal
euskara: Nepal
فارسی: نپال
Fiji Hindi: Nepal
føroyskt: Nepal
français: Népal
Frysk: Nepal
Fulfulde: Nepal
Gaeilge: Neipeal
Gaelg: Nepaal
Gagauz: Nepal
Gàidhlig: Neapàl
galego: Nepal
Gĩkũyũ: Nepal
ગુજરાતી: નેપાળ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: नेपाळ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Nepal
한국어: 네팔
Hausa: Nepal
Hawaiʻi: Nepala
հայերեն: Նեպալ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Նեփալ
हिन्दी: नेपाल
hornjoserbsce: Nepal
hrvatski: Nepal
Ido: Nepal
Ilokano: Nepal
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: নেপাল
Bahasa Indonesia: Nepal
interlingua: Nepal
Interlingue: Nepal
Ирон: Непал
isiZulu: Nepal
íslenska: Nepal
italiano: Nepal
עברית: נפאל
Jawa: Népal
Kabɩyɛ: Nepaalɩ
kalaallisut: Nepal
ಕನ್ನಡ: ನೇಪಾಳ
Kapampangan: Nepal
къарачай-малкъар: Непал
ქართული: ნეპალი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: नेपाल
kaszëbsczi: Nepal
қазақша: Непал
kernowek: Nepal
Kinyarwanda: Nepali
Kiswahili: Nepal
коми: Непал
Kongo: Nepal
Kreyòl ayisyen: Nepal
kurdî: Nepal
Кыргызча: Непал
Ladino: Nepal
لۊری شومالی: نپال
Latina: Nepalia
latviešu: Nepāla
Lëtzebuergesch: Nepal
лезги: Непал
lietuvių: Nepalas
Ligure: Nepal
Limburgs: Nepal
lingála: Nepáli
Lingua Franca Nova: Nepal
Livvinkarjala: Nepal
la .lojban.: nepal
Luganda: Nepal
lumbaart: Nepal
magyar: Nepál
मैथिली: नेपाल
македонски: Непал
Malagasy: Nepal
മലയാളം: നേപ്പാൾ
Malti: Nepal
मराठी: नेपाळ
მარგალური: ნეპალი
مصرى: نيبال
مازِرونی: نپال
Bahasa Melayu: Nepal
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nepal
Mirandés: Nepal
монгол: Балба
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နီပေါနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Nepal
Dorerin Naoero: Nepar
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Nepal
Nederlands: Nepal
Nedersaksies: Nepal
नेपाली: नेपाल
नेपाल भाषा: नेपाः
日本語: ネパール
нохчийн: Непал
Nordfriisk: Nepaal
Norfuk / Pitkern: Nepal
norsk: Nepal
norsk nynorsk: Nepal
Novial: Nepal
occitan: Nepal
олык марий: Непал
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ନେପାଳ
Oromoo: Neeppaal
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Nepal
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨੇਪਾਲ
पालि: नेपाल
Pangasinan: Nepal
پنجابی: نیپال
Papiamentu: Nepal
پښتو: نیپال
Patois: Nepal
ភាសាខ្មែរ: នេប៉ាល់
Picard: Népal
Piemontèis: Nepal
Tok Pisin: Nepal
Plattdüütsch: Nepal
polski: Nepal
português: Nepal
Qaraqalpaqsha: Nepal
qırımtatarca: Nepal
română: Nepal
Runa Simi: Nipal
русиньскый: Непал
русский: Непал
саха тыла: Непал
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞ
Gagana Samoa: Nepal
संस्कृतम्: नेपालदेशः
Scots: Nepal
shqip: Nepali
sicilianu: Nepal
සිංහල: නේපාලය
Simple English: Nepal
سنڌي: نيپال
SiSwati: INephali
slovenčina: Nepál
slovenščina: Nepal
ślůnski: Nepal
Soomaaliga: Nebal
کوردی: نیپال
српски / srpski: Непал
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nepal
Sunda: Népal
suomi: Nepal
svenska: Nepal
Tagalog: Nepal
தமிழ்: நேபாளம்
татарча/tatarça: Непал
తెలుగు: నేపాల్
tetun: Nepál
тоҷикӣ: Непал
Türkçe: Nepal
Türkmençe: Nepal
Twi: Nepal
удмурт: Непал
українська: Непал
اردو: نیپال
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: نېپال
Vahcuengh: Nepal
vèneto: Nèpal
vepsän kel’: Nepal
Tiếng Việt: Nepal
Volapük: Nepalän
Võro: Nepal
文言: 尼泊爾
Winaray: Nepal
Wolof: Nepaal
吴语: 尼泊尔
Xitsonga: Nepal
ייִדיש: נעפאל
Yorùbá: Nepal
粵語: 尼泊爾
Zazaki: Nepal
Zeêuws: Nepal
žemaitėška: Nepals
中文: 尼泊尔