Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
  • सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ( Nepali)
  • Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl
Motto: जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी ( Sanskrit)
Mother and Motherland are Greater than Heaven ( English)
Anthem:  सयौं थुँगा फूलका ( Nepali)
Made of Hundreds of Flowers ( English)
Location of Nepal
Location of Nepal
and largest city
28°10′N 84°15′E / 28°10′N 84°15′E / 28.167; 84.250
Official languages Nepali
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups ( 2011 [2] [ needs update])
Religion 81.3% Hinduism
9% Buddhism
4.4% Islam
3% Kirant
1.4% Christianity
0.4% Animism
0.5% Irreligion [3] [4]
Demonym Nepalese
Government Federal parliamentary republic
•  President
Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Nanda Kishor Pun
Sher Bahadur Deuba
Onsari Gharti Magar
Gopal Parajuli
Legislature Federal Parliament
Rastriya Sabha
Pratinidi Sabha
25 September 1768 [5]
• State declared
15 January 2007
• Republic declared
28 May 2008
• Total
147,181 km2 (56,827 sq mi) ( 93rd)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
28,982,771 [6] ( 48th)
• 2011 census
26,494,504 [2]
• Density
180/km2 (466.2/sq mi) ( 62nd)
GDP ( PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$74.020 billion [7]
• Per capita
$2,573 [7]
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$24.067 billion [7] ((107th))
• Per capita
$837 [7]
Gini (2010) Negative increase 32.8 [8]
HDI (2016) Increase 0.558 [9]
medium ·  144th
Currency Nepalese rupee ( NPR)
Time zone Nepal Standard Time ( UTC +05:45)
DST not observed
Drives on the left
Calling code +977
ISO 3166 code NP
Internet TLD .np

Nepal ( l/ ( About this sound  listen); [10] Nepali: नेपाल About this sound  Nepāl [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl), [11] is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia. Nepal is divided into 7 states and 77 districts [12] and 744 local units including 4 metropolises, 13 sub-metropolises, 246 municipal councils and 481 villages. [13] It has a population of 26.4 million and is the 93rd largest country by area. [2] [14] Bordering China in the north and India in the south, east, and west, it is the largest sovereign Himalayan state. Nepal does not border Bangladesh, which is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip. Neither does it border Bhutan due to the Indian state of Sikkim being located in between. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, [15] subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the nation's capital and largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language.

The territory of Nepal has a recorded history since the Neolithic age. The name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic Age, the era which founded Hinduism, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in southern Nepal. Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The Kathmandu Valley in central Nepal became known as Nepal proper because of its complex urban civilisation. It was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala. The highest elevation in Nepal is Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level. The Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and later formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonised but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and Colonial India. [16] [17] [18] In the 20th century, Nepal ended its isolation and forged strong ties with regional powers. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs in 1960 and 2005. The Nepalese Civil War resulted in the proclamation of a republic in 2008, ending the reign of the world's last Hindu monarchy. [19]

Modern Nepal is a federal secular parliamentary republic. It has seven states. Nepal is a developing nation, ranking 144th on the Human Development Index (HDI) in 2016. The country struggles with the transition from a monarchy to a republic. It also suffers from high levels of hunger and poverty. Despite these challenges, Nepal is making steady progress, with the government declaring its commitment to elevate the nation from least developed country status by 2022. [20] [21] Nepal also has a vast potential to generate hydropower for export.

Nepal's foreign relations expanded after the Anglo-Nepal Treaty of 1923, which was recognised by the League of Nations. After a Soviet veto in 1949, Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955. Friendship treaties were signed with the Dominion of India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. [22] [23] Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), of which it is a founding member. Nepal is also a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative. The military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia and is notable for its Gurkha history, particularly during the world wars, and has been a significant contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations.


Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, and that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected ("pala" in Pali) by the sage "Nemi". It is mentioned in Vedic texts that this region was called Nepal centuries ago. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called "Nemi" used to live in the Himalayas. [24] In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a saint and a protector. [25] He is said to have practised meditation at the Bagmati and Kesavati rivers [26] and to have taught there. [27]

The name of the country is also identical in origin to the name of the Newar people. The terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, and instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history. Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. [28] A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people. [29] [30]

It has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a later form of "Nepal". [31] According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, and L to R. [32]

Other Languages
Acèh: Nèpal
адыгабзэ: Непал
Afrikaans: Nepal
Alemannisch: Nepal
አማርኛ: ኔፓል
Ænglisc: Nepal
العربية: نيبال
aragonés: Nepal
armãneashti: Nepal
arpetan: Nèpal
অসমীয়া: নেপাল
asturianu: Nepal
Avañe'ẽ: Nepal
azərbaycanca: Nepal
تۆرکجه: نپال
বাংলা: নেপাল
Bahasa Banjar: Nepal
Bân-lâm-gú: Nepal
Basa Banyumasan: Nepal
башҡортса: Непал
беларуская: Непал
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нэпал
भोजपुरी: नेपाल
Bikol Central: Nepal
български: Непал
Boarisch: Nepal
བོད་ཡིག: བལ་ཡུལ།
bosanski: Nepal
brezhoneg: Nepal
буряад: Балба
català: Nepal
Чӑвашла: Непал
Cebuano: Nepal
čeština: Nepál
chiShona: Nepal
chiTumbuka: Nepal
Cymraeg: Nepal
dansk: Nepal
davvisámegiella: Nepal
Deutsch: Nepal
ދިވެހިބަސް: ނޭޕާލް
dolnoserbski: Nepal
ཇོང་ཁ: བལ་ཡུལ་
eesti: Nepal
Ελληνικά: Νεπάλ
español: Nepal
Esperanto: Nepalo
estremeñu: Nepal
euskara: Nepal
فارسی: نپال
Fiji Hindi: Nepal
føroyskt: Nepal
français: Népal
Frysk: Nepal
Fulfulde: Nepal
Gaeilge: Neipeal
Gaelg: Nepaal
Gagauz: Nepal
Gàidhlig: Neapàl
galego: Nepal
Gĩkũyũ: Nepal
ગુજરાતી: નેપાળ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: नेपाळ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Nepal
한국어: 네팔
Hausa: Nepal
Hawaiʻi: Nepala
Հայերեն: Նեպալ
हिन्दी: नेपाल
hornjoserbsce: Nepal
hrvatski: Nepal
Ido: Nepal
Ilokano: Nepal
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: নেপাল
Bahasa Indonesia: Nepal
interlingua: Nepal
Interlingue: Nepal
Ирон: Непал
isiZulu: Nepal
íslenska: Nepal
italiano: Nepal
עברית: נפאל
Basa Jawa: Népal
kalaallisut: Nepal
ಕನ್ನಡ: ನೇಪಾಳ
Kapampangan: Nepal
къарачай-малкъар: Непал
ქართული: ნეპალი
kaszëbsczi: Nepal
қазақша: Непал
kernowek: Nepal
Kinyarwanda: Nepali
Kiswahili: Nepal
коми: Непал
Kongo: Nepal
Kreyòl ayisyen: Nepal
Kurdî: Nepal
Кыргызча: Непал
Ladino: Nepal
лезги: Непал
لۊری شومالی: نئپال
Latina: Nepalia
latviešu: Nepāla
Lëtzebuergesch: Nepal
lietuvių: Nepalas
Ligure: Nepal
Limburgs: Nepal
lingála: Nepáli
Livvinkarjala: Nepal
la .lojban.: nepal
Luganda: Nepal
lumbaart: Nepal
magyar: Nepál
मैथिली: नेपाल
македонски: Непал
Malagasy: Nepal
മലയാളം: നേപ്പാൾ
Malti: Nepal
मराठी: नेपाळ
მარგალური: ნეპალი
مصرى: نيبال
مازِرونی: نپال
Bahasa Melayu: Nepal
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nepal
Mirandés: Nepal
монгол: Балба
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နီပေါနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Nepal
Dorerin Naoero: Nepar
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Nepal
Nederlands: Nepal
Nedersaksies: Nepal
नेपाली: नेपाल
नेपाल भाषा: नेपाः
日本語: ネパール
нохчийн: Непал
Nordfriisk: Nepaal
Norfuk / Pitkern: Nepal
norsk: Nepal
norsk nynorsk: Nepal
Novial: Nepal
occitan: Nepal
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ନେପାଳ
Oromoo: Neeppaal
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Nepal
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨੇਪਾਲ
पालि: नेपाल
Pangasinan: Nepal
پنجابی: نیپال
Papiamentu: Nepal
پښتو: نيپال
Patois: Nepal
ភាសាខ្មែរ: នេប៉ាល់
Picard: Népal
Piemontèis: Nepal
Tok Pisin: Nepal
Plattdüütsch: Nepal
polski: Nepal
português: Nepal
Qaraqalpaqsha: Nepal
qırımtatarca: Nepal
română: Nepal
Runa Simi: Nipal
русский: Непал
саха тыла: Непал
Gagana Samoa: Nepal
संस्कृतम्: नेपालदेशः
Scots: Nepal
shqip: Nepali
sicilianu: Nepal
සිංහල: නේපාලය
Simple English: Nepal
سنڌي: نيپال
SiSwati: INephali
slovenčina: Nepál
slovenščina: Nepal
ślůnski: Nepal
Soomaaliga: Nebal
کوردی: نیپال
српски / srpski: Непал
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nepal
Basa Sunda: Népal
suomi: Nepal
svenska: Nepal
Tagalog: Nepal
தமிழ்: நேபாளம்
татарча/tatarça: Непал
తెలుగు: నేపాల్
tetun: Nepál
тоҷикӣ: Непал
Türkçe: Nepal
Türkmençe: Nepal
Twi: Nepal
удмурт: Непал
українська: Непал
اردو: نیپال
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: نېپال
Vahcuengh: Nepal
vèneto: Nèpal
vepsän kel’: Nepal
Tiếng Việt: Nepal
Volapük: Nepalän
Võro: Nepal
文言: 尼泊爾
Winaray: Nepal
Wolof: Nepaal
吴语: 尼泊尔
ייִדיש: נעפאל
Yorùbá: Nepal
粵語: 尼泊爾
Zazaki: Nepal
Zeêuws: Nepal
žemaitėška: Nepals
中文: 尼泊尔
डोटेली: नेपाल
Kabɩyɛ: Nepaalɩ