Near-death experience

A near-death experience (NDE) is a personal experience associated with death or impending death. When positive, such experiences may encompass a variety of sensations including detachment from the body, feelings of levitation, total serenity, security, warmth, the experience of absolute dissolution, and the presence of a light. When negative, such experiences may include sensations of anguish and distress.[1] NDEs are a recognized part of some transcendental and religious beliefs in an afterlife.[1][2][3][4]

Different models have been described to explain NDEs.[5] Neuroscience research suggests that an NDE is a subjective phenomenon resulting from "disturbed bodily multisensory integration" that occurs during life-threatening events.[6]

Etymology

Ascent of the Blessed by Hieronymus Bosch is associated by some NDE researchers with aspects of the NDE.[7][8]

The equivalent French term expérience de mort imminente (experience of imminent death) was proposed by French psychologist and epistemologist Victor Egger as a result of discussions in the 1890s among philosophers and psychologists concerning climbers' stories of the panoramic life review during falls.[9][10] In 1892 a series of subjective observations by workers falling from scaffolds, war soldiers who suffered injuries, climbers who had fallen from heights or other individuals who had come close to death (near drownings, accidents) was reported by Albert Heim. This was also the first time the phenomenon was described as clinical syndrome.[11] In 1968 Celia Green published an analysis of 400 first-hand accounts of out-of-body experiences.[12] This represented the first attempt to provide a taxonomy of such experiences, viewed simply as anomalous perceptual experiences, or hallucinations. In 1969, Swiss-American psychiatrist and pioneer in near-death studies Elisabeth Kubler-Ross published her groundbreaking book On Death and Dying: What the dying have to teach doctors, nurses, clergy, and their own families. These experiences were also popularized by the work of psychiatrist Raymond Moody, who in 1975 coined the term "near-death experience" (NDE) as an umbrella term for the different elements (out of body experiences, the "panoramic life review," the Light, the tunnel, or the border).[11] The term "near-death experience" had already been used by John C. Lilly in 1972.[13]

Other Languages
한국어: 임사 체험
Nederlands: Bijna-doodervaring
日本語: 臨死体験
Simple English: Near death experience
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Iskustvo bliske smrti
吴语: 瀕死經驗
粵語: 瀕死經歷
中文: 瀕死經驗