Nazism

National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism (t-/),[1] is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but also incorporated fervent antisemitism, scientific racism, and eugenics into its creed. Its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, and it was strongly influenced by the anti-Communist Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence" which was "at the heart of the movement."[2]

Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race.[3] It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community (Volksgemeinschaft). The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in historically German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races.

The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of class conflict, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism and sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization.[4]

The Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats (SPD) and the Communists (KPD) – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization. The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while also supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"; 1924–1925), Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion.[5]

The Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, and a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.

The Sturmabteilung (SA) and the Schutzstaffel (SS) functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more socially and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was effectively the dictator of Nazi Germany, which was also known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were eventually exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.

Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced. It is widely regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism.

Etymology

Flag of the Nazi Party, similar but not identical to the national flag of Nazi Germany (1933–1945)

The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (English: National-Socialist German Workers' Party) for which they officially used the acronym NSDAP.

The term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. This was derived from Nazi a hypocorism of the German men's name Ignatz (itself a variation of the men's name Ignatius) – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged.[6][7]

In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist (English: Socialist) as an example[8] – shortened the first part of the party's name, [Na]tionalso[zi]alistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above.[9][7][10][11][12][13]

After the NSDAP's rise to power in the 1930s, the use of the term "Nazi" by itself or in terms such as "Nazi Germany", "Nazi regime" and so on was popularised by German exiles. From them, the term spread into other languages and it was eventually brought back into Germany after World War II.[10]

The NSDAP briefly adopted the designation "Nazi"[when?] in an attempt to reappropriate the term, but it soon gave up this effort and generally avoided using the term while it was in power.[10][11]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Nationalsozialismus
العربية: نازية
aragonés: Nazismo
asturianu: Nazismu
azərbaycanca: Nasional Sosializm
تۆرکجه: نازیسم
বাংলা: নাৎসিবাদ
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нацыянал-сацыялізм
bosanski: Nacizam
brezhoneg: Naziegezh
català: Nazisme
čeština: Nacismus
Cymraeg: Natsïaeth
dansk: Nazisme
Ελληνικά: Ναζισμός
español: Nazismo
Esperanto: Naziismo
فارسی: نازیسم
français: Nazisme
Gaeilge: Naitsíochas
galego: Nazismo
ગુજરાતી: નાઝીવાદ
한국어: 나치즘
हिन्दी: नाज़ीवाद
hornjoserbsce: Nacionalsocializm
Bahasa Indonesia: Nazisme
interlingua: Nazismo
Interlingue: Nationalsocialisme
íslenska: Nasismi
עברית: נאציזם
ಕನ್ನಡ: ನಾಜಿಸಮ್
қазақша: Нацизм
Latina: Nazismus
lietuvių: Nacizmas
मराठी: नाझीवाद
مصرى: نازيه
नेपाली: नाजीवाद
日本語: ナチズム
Napulitano: Nazzismo
norsk nynorsk: Nazisme
occitan: Nazisme
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨਾਜ਼ੀਵਾਦ
Piemontèis: Nasism
português: Nazismo
română: Nazism
русиньскый: Націзм
саха тыла: Нацизм
Scots: Nazism
shqip: Nazizmi
sicilianu: Nazzismu
Simple English: Nazism
سنڌي: نازيت
slovenčina: Nacizmus
slovenščina: Nacionalsocializem
српски / srpski: Нацизам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nacionalsocijalizam
svenska: Nazism
Tagalog: Nazismo
தமிழ்: நாசிசம்
తెలుగు: నాజీయిజం
тоҷикӣ: Нозисм
اردو: نازیت
Tiếng Việt: Chủ nghĩa quốc xã
Volapük: Netasogädim
walon: Nazisse
Winaray: Nazismo
ייִדיש: נאציזם
粵語: 納粹
žemaitėška: Nacėzmos
中文: 纳粹主义
Lingua Franca Nova: Nazisme