The word "vessel" includes every description of
watercraft, including non-displacement craft,
WIG craft and
seaplanes, used or capable of being used as a means of
transportation on water.
 The principal elements of naval architecture are:
Body plan of a ship showing the hull form
Hydrostatics concerns the conditions to which the vessel is subjected to while at rest in water and its ability to remain afloat. This involves computing
displacement) and other hydrostatic properties, such as trim (the measure of the longitudinal inclination of the vessel) and
stability (the ability of a vessel to restore itself to an upright position after being inclined by wind, sea, or loading conditions).
Hydrodynamics concerns the flow of water around the ship's
stern, and over bodies such as
propeller blades or
rudder, or through thruster tunnels.
Resistance – resistance towards motion in water primarily caused due to flow of water around the hull. Powering calculation is done based on this.
Propulsion – to move the vessel through water using
sails etc. Engine types are mainly
internal combustion. Some vessels are electrically powered using
Ship motions – involves motions of the vessel in seaway and its responses in waves and wind. Controllability (maneuvering) – involves controlling and maintaining position and direction of the vessel
Deck of an oil tanker, looking aft.
Structures involves selection of material of construction,
structural analysis of global and local strength of the vessel, vibration of the structural components and structural responses of the vessel during
motions in seaway.
concept design, layout and access,
fire protection, allocation of spaces,
Construction depends on the material used. When steel or aluminium is used this involves welding of the plates and profiles after
bending as per the
structural design drawings or models, followed by erection and
Other joining techniques are used for other materials like
fibre reinforced plastic and