Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland. The political ideology of nationalism holds that a nation should govern itself, free from outside interference and is linked to the concept of self-determination. Nationalism is further oriented towards developing and maintaining a national identity based on shared, social characteristics, such as culture and language, religion and politics, and a belief in a common ancestry.[1][2] Nationalism, therefore, seeks to preserve a nation's culture, by way of pride in national achievements, and is closely linked to patriotism, which, in some cases, includes the belief that the nation should control the country's government and the means of production.[3]

Historically, nationalism is a modern concept dating from the 18th century, of an ideological scope greater than a peoples' attachment to family, to local authority, and to the native land.[4] Politically and sociologically, there are three paradigms for understanding the origins and bases of nationalism. The first paradigm is primordialism (perennialism), which proposes nationalism as a natural phenomenon, that nations have always existed. The second paradigm is ethnosymbolism, a complex, historical perspective, which explains nationalism as a dynamic, evolutionary phenomenon imbued with historical meaning, by way of the nation's subjective ties to national symbols. The third paradigm is modernism, which proposes that nationalism is a recent social phenomenon that requires the socio-economic structures of modern society to exist.[5]

There are various definitions for what constitutes a nation, however, which leads to several different strands of nationalism. It can be a belief that citizenship in a state should be limited to one ethnic, cultural, religious, or identity group, or that multinationality in a single state should necessarily comprise the right to express and exercise national identity even by minorities.[6]The adoption of national identity in terms of historical development has commonly been the result of a response by influential groups unsatisfied with traditional identities due to inconsistency between their defined social order and the experience of that social order by its members, resulting in a situation of anomie that nationalists seek to resolve.[7] This anomie results in a society or societies reinterpreting identity, retaining elements that are deemed acceptable and removing elements deemed unacceptable, to create a unified community.[7] This development may be the result of internal structural issues or the result of resentment by an existing group or groups towards other communities, especially foreign powers that are or are deemed to be controlling them.[7]National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are highly important in nationalism.[8][9][10][11]


The word nation was used before 1800 in Europe to refer to the inhabitants of a country as well as to collective identities that could include shared history, law, language, political rights, religion and traditions, in a sense more akin to the modern conception.[12]

Nationalism is a newer word; in English the term dates from 1844, although the concept is older.[13] It became important in the 19th century.[14] The term increasingly became negative in its connotations after 1914. Glenda Sluga notes that "The twentieth century, a time of profound disillusionment with nationalism, was also the great age of globalism."[15]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Nasionalisme
Alemannisch: Nationalismus
አማርኛ: ብሔርተኝነት
العربية: قومية
aragonés: Nacionalismo
অসমীয়া: জাতীয়তাবাদ
asturianu: Nacionalismu
azərbaycanca: Millətçilik
Bân-lâm-gú: Bîn-cho̍k-chú-gī
башҡортса: Милләтселек
беларуская: Нацыяналізм
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нацыяналізм
български: Национализъм
bosanski: Nacionalizam
brezhoneg: Broadelouriezh
català: Nacionalisme
čeština: Nacionalismus
davvisámegiella: Nationalisma
Deutsch: Nationalismus
eesti: Rahvuslus
Ελληνικά: Εθνικισμός
español: Nacionalismo
Esperanto: Naciismo
estremeñu: Nacionalismu
euskara: Nazionalismo
Fiji Hindi: Rastryawaad
føroyskt: Nationalisma
français: Nationalisme
galego: Nacionalismo
한국어: 내셔널리즘
हिन्दी: राष्ट्रवाद
hrvatski: Nacionalizam
Ilokano: Nasionalismo
Bahasa Indonesia: Nasionalisme
italiano: Nazionalismo
עברית: לאומיות
Basa Jawa: Nasionalisme
къарачай-малкъар: Миллетчилик
қазақша: Ұлтшылдық
Kiswahili: Utaifa
Кыргызча: Улутчулдук
Ladino: Nasionalizmo
latviešu: Nacionālisms
lietuvių: Nacionalizmas
Limburgs: Nationalisme
lumbaart: Naziunalism
македонски: Национализам
മലയാളം: ദേശീയത
მარგალური: ნაციონალიზმი
مازِرونی: ناسیونالیسم
Bahasa Melayu: Nasionalisme
Mirandés: Nacionalismo
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အမျိုးသားရေးဝါဒ
Nederlands: Nationalisme
नेपाल भाषा: राष्ट्रवाद
нохчийн: Национализм
norsk nynorsk: Nasjonalisme
occitan: Nacionalisme
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Millatchilik
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੌਮਪ੍ਰਸਤੀ
پنجابی: نیشنلزم
Patois: Nashinalizim
Piemontèis: Nassionalism
polski: Nacjonalizm
português: Nacionalismo
română: Naționalism
rumantsch: Naziunalissem
русиньскый: Націоналізм
русский: Национализм
саха тыла: Национализм
sicilianu: Nazziunalismu
Simple English: Nationalism
slovenčina: Nacionalizmus
slovenščina: Nacionalizem
српски / srpski: Национализам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nacionalizam
svenska: Nationalism
татарча/tatarça: Милләтчелек
Türkçe: Milliyetçilik
тыва дыл: Национализм
українська: Націоналізм
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مىللەتچىلىك
Tiếng Việt: Chủ nghĩa dân tộc
Winaray: Nasyonalismó
粵語: 民族主義
žemaitėška: Naciuonalėzmos
中文: 民族主義
Lingua Franca Nova: Nasionalisme