Myanmar

Republic of the Union of Myanmar
  • ပြည်ထောင်စုသမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်  (Burmese)
  • Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw
Anthem: 
Location of  Myanmar  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Myanmar  (green)

in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

Location of Myanmar
CapitalNaypyidaw (Nay Pyi Taw)
19°45′N 96°6′E / 19°45′N 96°6′E / 19.750; 96.100
Largest cityYangon (Rangoon)
Official languagesBurmese
Recognised regional languages
Official scriptBurmese script
Ethnic groups ([1])
Religion Theravāda Buddhism 87.9%
Christianity 6.2%
Islam 4.3%
Other 1.6%[2]
DemonymBurmese / Myanma[3]
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Win Myint
Aung San Suu Kyi
Myint Swe
Henry Van Thio
LegislatureAssembly of the Union
House of Nationalities
House of Representatives
Formation
23 December 849
16 October 1510
29 February 1752
1 January 1886
4 January 1948
2 March 1962
30 March 2011
Area
• Total
676,578 km2 (261,228 sq mi) (39th)
• Water (%)
3.06
Population
• 2017 census
53,582,855 (2017)[4] (25th)
• Density
76/km2 (196.8/sq mi) (125th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$334.856 billion[5] (53rd)
• Per capita
$6,139[5] (126th)
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$69,322 billion[5] (70th)
• Per capita
$1,299[5] (152nd)
HDI (2017)Increase 0.578[6]
medium · 148th
CurrencyKyat (K) (MMK)
Time zoneUTC+06:30 (MMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+95
ISO 3166 codeMM
Internet TLD.mm

Myanmar (English pronunciation below; Burmese: [mjəmà]),[nb 1] officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km (3,651 mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km (1,200 mi) along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people.[7] As of 2017, the population is about 54 million.[4] Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres (261,228 square miles) in size. Its capital city is Naypyidaw, and its largest city and former capital is Yangon (Rangoon).[1] Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) since 1997.

Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma.[8] In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture and Theravada Buddhism slowly became dominant in the country. The Pagan Kingdom fell due to the Mongol invasions and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia.[9] The early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence in 1948, as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party.

For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country.[10] In 2011, the military junta was officially dissolved following a 2010 general election, and a nominally civilian government was installed. This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, and has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions.[11] There is, however, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, and religious clashes.[12] In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics.

Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, oil, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP (nominal) stood at US$56.7 billion and its GDP (PPP) at US$221.5 billion.[13] The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government.[14] As of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index.[6]

Etymology

Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.[15] The terms are also popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma.[16]

In 1989, the military government officially changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar". The renaming remains a contested issue.[17] Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country.[18]

In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular".[19]

The country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" (ပြည်ထောင်စုသမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်, Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw, pronounced [pjìdàʊɴzṵ θàɴməda̰ mjəmà nàɪɴŋàɴdɔ̀]). Countries that do not officially recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead.[20]

In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group. Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name.[17] Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Bama (pronounced [bəmà]) or Myamah (pronounced [mjəmà]).[17] The name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century.

Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom.[21][22] Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma (Myanmar)" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names.[23] The government of Canada has in the past used Burma,[21] such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions,[24] but as of the mid-2010s generally uses Myanmar.[25] The Czech Republic officially uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website.[26] The United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Australia,[27] Russia, (Germany),[28] China, India, Bangladesh, Norway,[29] Japan[21] and Switzerland.[30]

Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC,[31] CNN,[32] Al Jazeera,[33] Reuters,[34] and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)/Radio Australia.[35]

Myanmar is known with a name deriving from Burma as opposed to Myanmar in Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and GreekBirmania being the local version of Burma in the Spanish language, for example. Myanmar used to be known as "Birmânia" in Portuguese, and as "Birmanie" in French.[36] As in the past, French-language media today consistently use Birmanie.[37][38]

English pronunciations of Myanmar

Myanmar is pronounced in at least nine different ways in English: ɑːr/, ɑːr/, ɑːr/ (About this soundlisten), ɑːr/, ɑːr/, ɑːr/, ɑːr/, ɑːr/, ɑːr/.[39]

Other Languages
Acèh: Myanmar
Адыгэбзэ: Миянмэ
адыгабзэ: Бирмэ
Afrikaans: Mianmar
Alemannisch: Myanmar
አማርኛ: ምየንማ
Ænglisc: Burma
العربية: ميانمار
aragonés: Myanmar
arpetan: Birmanie
অসমীয়া: ম্যানমাৰ
asturianu: Myanmar
Avañe'ẽ: Miama
azərbaycanca: Myanma
تۆرکجه: میانمار
Bân-lâm-gú: Myanmar
Basa Banyumasan: Myanmar
башҡортса: Мьянма
беларуская: М’янма
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: М’янма
भोजपुरी: म्याँमार
Bikol Central: Myanmar
Bislama: Burma
български: Мианмар
Boarisch: Myanmar
བོད་ཡིག: བྷར་མ།
bosanski: Mjanmar
brezhoneg: Myanmar
буряад: Мьянма
català: Birmània
Чӑвашла: Мьянма
Cebuano: Birmanya
čeština: Myanmar
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Birmania
chiShona: Burma
chiTumbuka: Myanmar
Cymraeg: Myanmar
dansk: Myanmar
davvisámegiella: Myanmar
Deutsch: Myanmar
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބަރުމާ
dolnoserbski: Myanmar
डोटेली: म्यानमार
ཇོང་ཁ: མེ་མར་
eesti: Myanmar
Ελληνικά: Μιανμάρ
español: Birmania
Esperanto: Birmo
estremeñu: Myanmar
euskara: Myanmar
eʋegbe: Myanmar
فارسی: میانمار
Fiji Hindi: Myanmar
føroyskt: Burma
français: Birmanie
Frysk: Birma
Gaeilge: Maenmar
Gaelg: Myanmar
Gagauz: Myanmar
Gàidhlig: Mianmar
galego: Myanmar
贛語: 緬甸
Gĩkũyũ: Burma
ગુજરાતી: બર્મા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: म्यानमार
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mién-thien
한국어: 미얀마
Hausa: Myanmar
Hawaiʻi: Puruma
հայերեն: Մյանմա
हिन्दी: म्यान्मार
hornjoserbsce: Myanmar
hrvatski: Mjanmar
Ido: Myanmar
Ilokano: Myanmar
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মায়ানমার
Bahasa Indonesia: Myanmar
interlingua: Birmania
Interlingue: Myanmar
Iñupiak: Myanmar
Ирон: Мьянмæ
íslenska: Mjanmar
italiano: Birmania
עברית: מיאנמר
Basa Jawa: Myanmar
Kabɩyɛ: Pirmaanii
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಯನ್ಮಾರ್
Kapampangan: Myanmar
ქართული: მიანმარი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: बर्मा
kaszëbsczi: Myanmar
қазақша: Мьянма
kernowek: Byrmani
Kinyarwanda: Mayanimari
Kirundi: Burumaniya
Kiswahili: Myanmar
коми: Мьянма
Kongo: Myanmar
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bimani
kurdî: Myanmar
Кыргызча: Мьянма
Latina: Birmania
latviešu: Mjanma
Lëtzebuergesch: Myanmar
lietuvių: Mianmaras
Ligure: Myanmar
Limburgs: Birma
lingála: Myanmar
Lingua Franca Nova: Miama
Livvinkarjala: Mjanmar
lumbaart: Myanmar
magyar: Mianmar
मैथिली: म्यानमार
македонски: Мјанмар
Malagasy: Myanmara
മലയാളം: മ്യാൻമാർ
Malti: Burma
मराठी: म्यानमार
მარგალური: მიანმარი
مصرى: ميانمار
مازِرونی: میانمار
Bahasa Melayu: Myanmar
Baso Minangkabau: Myanmar
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Miēng-diêng
монгол: Мьянмар
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မြန်မာနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Miyanmar
Nederlands: Myanmar
नेपाली: म्यानमार
नेपाल भाषा: म्यान्मार
日本語: ミャンマー
Napulitano: Birmania
нохчийн: Мьянма
Nordfriisk: Mjanmaar
Norfuk / Pitkern: Myanmaa
norsk: Myanmar
norsk nynorsk: Myanmar
Novial: Myanmar
occitan: Birmania
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମ୍ୟାନମାର
Oromoo: Maaynamaar
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Birma
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਿਆਂਮਾਰ
पालि: मयन्मार
پنجابی: میانمر
Papiamentu: Myanmar
پښتو: ميانمار
Patois: Mianmaa
ភាសាខ្មែរ: មីយ៉ាន់ម៉ា
Picard: Birmanie
Piemontèis: Myanmar
Tok Pisin: Myanmar
Plattdüütsch: Myanmar
polski: Mjanma
português: Myanmar
Qaraqalpaqsha: Myanma (Birma)
qırımtatarca: Myanmar
română: Myanmar
Runa Simi: Myanmar
русиньскый: Мянмарьско
русский: Мьянма
саха тыла: Мьянмар
संस्कृतम्: बर्मा
sardu: Myanmar
Scots: Myanmar
shqip: Birmania
sicilianu: Myanmar
Simple English: Myanmar
سنڌي: ميانمار
SiSwati: IMayanima
slovenčina: Mjanmarsko
slovenščina: Mjanmar
ślůnski: Birma
Soomaaliga: Burma
کوردی: میانمار
српски / srpski: Мјанмар
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mjanmar
Basa Sunda: Myanmar
suomi: Myanmar
svenska: Myanmar
Tagalog: Myanmar
Taqbaylit: Birmanya
татарча/tatarça: Мьянма
తెలుగు: మయన్మార్
tetun: Birmánia
тоҷикӣ: Мянма
Türkçe: Myanmar
Türkmençe: Mýanmar
удмурт: Мьянма
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Myanmar
українська: М'янма
اردو: میانمار
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بىرما
Vahcuengh: Mienjdien
vèneto: Birmania
vepsän kel’: Mjanmar
Tiếng Việt: Myanmar
Volapük: Mianmarän
Võro: Birma
文言: 緬甸
West-Vlams: Myanmar
Winaray: Birmania
Wolof: Miyanmaar
吴语: 缅甸
ייִדיש: מיאנמאר
Yorùbá: Myanmar
粵語: 緬甸
Zazaki: Myanmar
Zeêuws: Myanmar
žemaitėška: Mianmars
中文: 缅甸