Musa al-Kadhim

Mūsá al-Kāẓim
موسى الكاظم  (Arabic)

7th Imam of Twelver Shia Islam
Mousa kazem - 0012541251.jpg
Bornc. (745-11-10)10 November 745 CE[1]
(7 Safar 128 AH)
Al-Abwa, Medina, Umayyad Empire
Diedc. 4 September 799(799-09-04) (aged 53)
(25 Rajab 183 AH)
Baghdad, Abbasid Empire
Cause of deathPoisoning by Harun al-Rashid according to most Shi'a Muslims
Resting placeAl-Kadhimiya Mosque, Iraq
33°22′48″N 44°20′16.64″E / 33°22′48″N 44°20′16.64″E / 33.38000; 44.3379556
Other namesMūsa ibn Ja'far
Term765 – 799 CE
PredecessorJa'far al-Sadiq
SuccessorAli al-Ridha
Spouse(s)Ummul Banīn Najmah[5]
and 3 others
Parent(s)Ja'far al-Sadiq
Hamīdah al-Barbariyyah[2][3]

Mūsá ibn Ja‘far al-Kāzim (Arabic: موسى بن جعفر الكاظم‎), also called Abūl-Hasan, Abū Abd Allah, Abū Ibrāhīm, and al-Kāzim (the one who controls his anger), was the seventh Shiite Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq. He is regarded by Sunnis as a renowned scholar, and was a contemporary of the Abbasid caliphs Al-Mansur, Al-Hadi, Al-Mahdi and Harun al-Rashid. He was imprisoned several times, finally dying in Baghdad in the Sindi ibn Shahak prison. Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Imām, and Fatemah Masume were among his children.[2][11][12][13]

Birth and early life

Musa al-Kadhim was born during the conflict between the Abbasids and Umayyads, and was four years old when As-Saffah, the first Abbasid Caliph, took the throne. His mother, Hamidah, was a former slave from either Berbery or Andalusia. Al-Kadhim was brought up in a large family, with nine sisters and six brothers. His oldest brother Ismail predeceased his father Ja'far al-Sadiq, who held the position of Imam. According to Twelver Shiites, Musa was chosen by divine order and decree of his father as the next Imam.[13]

According to some sources, al-Kadhim was religiously minded as a child. Muhammad Baqir Majlisi relates an incident where Abū Ḥanīfa called on Ja'far al-Sadiq to ask his advice. While there, he encountered al-Kadhim, who was then five years old. Hanifa asked al-Kadhim the question meant for his father, saying: "Boy, from whom does disobedience (issue)? Does it issue from Allah or from the servant?" Al-Kadhim answered, saying: "Either it issues from God and not from the servant at all, so God does not punish the servant for what he does not do; or it issues from the servant and God, and God is a stronger partner. Therefore, the stronger partner has no right to punish the weak for a sin in which they are equal; or it issues from the servant and not from God. So if He wills to pardon (him), (He will pardon him), and if He wills to punish (him), (He will punish him); and God is He whose help is sought." Upon hearing this, Hanifa left, saying that the answer had been good enough for him.[a][14]

In another incident, Abū Ḥanīfa complained to al-Sadiq, saying: "I have seen your son, Musa, pray while the people were passing (walking) before him. He did not prevent them from that."[b] The Imam ordered his son to be brought before him, and asked him whether it was true. Al-Khadhim replied "Yes, father, the One to Whom I pray is nearer to me than them;[c] Allah, the Great and Almighty, says: We are nearer to him than the jugular vein."[d] On hearing this response, the Imam rose, hugged his son, and said; "May my father and mother be your ransom, O he in whom secrets have been deposited!"[15]

Other Languages
العربية: موسى الكاظم
azərbaycanca: Musa əl-Kazım
تۆرکجه: ایمام کاظم
español: Musa ibn Ya'far
فارسی: موسی کاظم
français: Musa al-Kazim
Bahasa Indonesia: Musa al-Kadzim
italiano: Musa al-Kazim
لۊری شومالی: موسی کاظم
مازِرونی: موسی کاظم
Bahasa Melayu: Musa al-Kazim
Nederlands: Moesa al-Kazim
Simple English: Musa ibn Jafar
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Musa al-Kazim
svenska: Musa al-Kazim
тоҷикӣ: Мусои Козим
Türkçe: Musa el-Kâzım
українська: Муса ібн Джафар
Zazaki: Musa Kazım