Mumbai

Mumbai
Bombay
Megacity
Top to bottom: Cuffe Parade skyline, the Gateway of India (L), Taj Mahal Palace Hotel (R), Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Bandra–Worli Sea Link.
Nickname(s): City of Seven Islands, City of Dreams, [1] Gateway to India, Hollywood of India
Mumbai is located in Maharashtra
Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai is located in India
Mumbai
Mumbai
Location of Mumbai in Maharashtra, India
Coordinates: 18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18.97500; 72.82583
Country India
State Maharashtra
District Mumbai City
Mumbai Suburban
First settled 1507
Named for Mumbadevi
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body MCGM
 •  Mayor Vishwanath Mahadeshwar [2] [3] [4] ( Shiv Sena)
 •  Municipal commissioner Ajoy Mehta [5]
Area
 •  Megacity 603 km2 (233 sq mi)
 • Metro [6] 4,355 km2 (1,681.5 sq mi)
Elevation 14 m (46 ft)
Population (2011) [7]
 •  Megacity 12,442,373
 • Rank 1st
 • Density 21,000/km2 (53,000/sq mi)
 •  Metro [8] 18,414,288
20,748,395 (Extended UA)
 • Metro Rank 1st
Demonym(s) Mumbaikar
Time zone IST ( UTC+5:30)
PIN code(s) 400 001 to 400 107
Area code(s) +91-22
Vehicle registration MH-01 (South), MH-02 (West), MH-03 (Central), MH-47 (North)
GDP/PPP $368 billion (Metro area, 2015) [9]
Official language Marathi [10] [11]
Website www.mcgm.gov.in

Mumbai ( /; also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million as of 2011. Along with the neighbouring regions of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, it is second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. [12] [13] [14] Mumbai lies on the Konkan on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour.

In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. [15] It is also the wealthiest city in India, [16] [17] and has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. [18] [19]

The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies of the Koli people. [20] For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay. [21] During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, [22] which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. [23] Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by economic and educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. [24]

Mumbai is the financial, commercial [25] and entertainment capital of India. It is also one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, [26] generating 6.16% of India's GDP [27] and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India ( Mumbai Port Trust and JNPT), [28] and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. [29] [30] The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. It is also home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, and the Department of Atomic Energy. The city also houses India's Hindi ( Bollywood) and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, [31] attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures.

Etymology

The name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess ( kuladevata) Mumbadevi of the native Agri, Koli and Somvanshi communities— [32] and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, which is the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. [20] [33]

The Mumba Devi Temple, from whom the city of Mumbai may derive its name

The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used. [34] [35] In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India"). [36] [37] This name possibly originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", [38] and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese. [39] In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. [40]

Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), Boon Bay (1690), [39] [41] and Bon Bahia. [42] After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. [43] Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi (1762) referred to the city as Manbai. [44]

The French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs (Pub. 1877 in Paris): "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bōa Bahia, or (French: "bonne bai", English: "good bay"), not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, and that she still..., possesses a temple". [45]

By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Sindhi, and as Bambai in Hindi. [46] The Government of India officially changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995. [47] This came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, and mirrored similar name changes across the country and particularly in Maharashtra. [48] According to Slate magazine, "they argued that 'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of 'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." [49] Slate also said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." [50] While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, [51] [52] mention of the city by a name other than Mumbai has been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature. [53] [54]

A resident of Mumbai is called mumbaikar in Marathi, in which the suffix kar means resident of. The term had been in use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official name change to Mumbai. [55]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Mumbai
Alemannisch: Mumbai
አማርኛ: ሙምባይ
العربية: مومباي
aragonés: Bombai
arpetan: Mumbai
অসমীয়া: মুম্বাই
asturianu: Mumbai
azərbaycanca: Mumbay
تۆرکجه: بمبئی
বাংলা: মুম্বই
Bân-lâm-gú: Mumbai
башҡортса: Мумбаи
беларуская: Мумбаі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мумбаі
भोजपुरी: मुंबई
Bikol Central: Mumbai
български: Мумбай
བོད་ཡིག: འབོམ་སྦེ
bosanski: Mumbai
brezhoneg: Mumbai
буряад: Мумбай
català: Bombai
Чӑвашла: Бомбей
čeština: Bombaj
Chi-Chewa: Mumbai
Cymraeg: Mumbai
dansk: Mumbai
davvisámegiella: Mumbai
Deutsch: Mumbai
ދިވެހިބަސް: މުންބާއީ
dolnoserbski: Mumbai
eesti: Mumbai
Ελληνικά: Μουμπάι
эрзянь: Мумбаи ош
español: Bombay
Esperanto: Mumbajo
estremeñu: Bombay
euskara: Mumbai
فارسی: بمبئی
Fiji Hindi: Mumbai
føroyskt: Mumbai
français: Bombay
Gaeilge: Mumbai
Gàidhlig: Mumbai
galego: Bombai
ગુજરાતી: મુંબઈ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Bombaim
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mumbai
한국어: 뭄바이
Hausa: Mumbai
Հայերեն: Մումբայ
हिन्दी: मुम्बई
hornjoserbsce: Mumbai
hrvatski: Mumbai
Ido: Mumbai
Ilokano: Mumbai
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পুল্লাপ মুম্বাই
Bahasa Indonesia: Mumbai
interlingua: Mumbai
Interlingue: Mumbai
Ирон: Мумбаи
íslenska: Mumbai
italiano: Mumbai
עברית: מומבאי
Basa Jawa: Mumbai
kalaallisut: Mumbai
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮುಂಬೈ
Kapampangan: Mumbai
ქართული: მუმბაი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: بَمبَے
қазақша: Мумбаи
kernowek: Mumbai
Kiswahili: Mumbai
Kurdî: Mumbaî
Кыргызча: Мумбай
Ladino: Mumbai
лезги: Мумбаи
Latina: Mumbai
latviešu: Mumbaja
Lëtzebuergesch: Mumbai
lietuvių: Mumbajus
Limburgs: Bombay
la .lojban.: mymbais
lumbaart: Mumbai
magyar: Mumbai
मैथिली: मुम्बई
македонски: Мумбај
Malagasy: Mumbai
മലയാളം: മുംബൈ
Māori: Mumbai
मराठी: मुंबई
მარგალური: მუმბაი
مصرى: مومباى
مازِرونی: بمبئی
Bahasa Melayu: Mumbai
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Mumbai
монгол: Мумбай
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မွမ်ဘိုင်းမြို့
Nāhuatl: Mumbai
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Mubai
Nederlands: Bombay
नेपाली: मुम्बई
नेपाल भाषा: ग्रेटर मुम्बई
日本語: ムンバイ
нохчийн: Мумбаи
norsk: Mumbai
norsk nynorsk: Mumbai
occitan: Bombai
олык марий: Мумбаи
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମୁମ୍ବାଇ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mumbay
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੁੰਬਈ
پنجابی: ممبئی
پښتو: ممبای
Piemontèis: Mumbai
Plattdüütsch: Mumbai
polski: Mumbaj
português: Bombaim
Qaraqalpaqsha: Mumbai
română: Mumbai
Romani: Mumbai
Runa Simi: Mumbai
русиньскый: Мумбаі
русский: Мумбаи
саха тыла: Мумбаи
संस्कृतम्: मुम्बई
sardu: Bombay
Scots: Mumbai
sicilianu: Mumbai
සිංහල: මුම්බායි
Simple English: Mumbai
سنڌي: ممبئي
slovenčina: Bombaj
slovenščina: Mumbaj
ślůnski: Bůmbaj
کوردی: مومبای
српски / srpski: Мумбај
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mumbaj
suomi: Mumbai
svenska: Bombay
Tagalog: Mumbai
தமிழ்: மும்பை
Taqbaylit: Mumbay
tarandíne: Mumbai
татарча/tatarça: Mumbai
తెలుగు: ముంబై
ไทย: มุมไบ
тоҷикӣ: Мумбай
Türkçe: Mumbai
Türkmençe: Mumbai
Twi: Mumbai
українська: Мумбаї
اردو: ممبئی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Bombay
vepsän kel’: Mumbai
Tiếng Việt: Mumbai
Volapük: Mumbai
Võro: Mumbai
Winaray: Mumbai
吴语: 孟买
ייִדיש: מומביי
Yorùbá: Mumbai
粵語: 孟買
žemaitėška: Mombajos
中文: 孟买
डोटेली: मुम्बई
Kabɩyɛ: Pombe